The effects of leucodepletion in patients who develop the systemic inflammatory response syndrome following cardiopulmonary bypass

Treacher, D F; Sabbato, M; Brown, K A; Gant, V
January 2001
Perfusion;Jan2001 Supplement, Vol. 16 Issue 1S, p67
Academic Journal
The development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Numerous anticytokine trials have failed to demonstrate any outcome benefit and there has been little evidence of improvement in the prognosis of this condition over the past 20 years. This study examines the effect of using a white cell filter designed to remove polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in patients who developed SIRS 36 h after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Twenty-four patients were randomized to receive either leucofiltration (LF) or control therapy (CT). The two groups were well matched at study entry in terms of age, severity of illness and length of time on CPB. LF patients received 60 min filtration periods using a venovenous extracorporeal circuit at a flow rate of 200 ml/min with the cycle repeated every 12 h while SIRS and other entry criteria were met. CT patients received standard therapy. LF patients received an average of 4.2 cycles (range 1-8) and, after 15 min filtration, the total leucocyte count had fallen from 16.2 � 5.3 to 10.4 � 3.3 � 109/l and PMN from 14.4 � 5.2 to 8.3 � 4.2 � 109/l. The mean platelet count changed from 127 � 87 to 117 � 82 � 109/l. No adverse effects related to leucodepletion were observed. There was no difference between the groups in either mortality or length of stay at the intensive care unit or at hospital discharge. Organ function was assessed regularly during the study period and significant changes occurred only in respiratory and renal function. In the LF patients, respiratory function assessed by change in hypoxaemia index from baseline and renal function assessed by serum creatinine showed significant treatment effects compared to CT patients (p < 0.01, <0.01 respectively); three CT patients, but no LF patients, received haemofiltration during the study period. Leucofiltration safely and effectively removes circulating PMNs from patients with SIRS following CPB. This may result in improved pulmonary and renal function in these patients. Further studies are required of the kinetics and phenotypic characteristics of PMN removal by leucofiltration and a larger multicentre study will be necessary to determine whether this novel therapy has a significant outcome benefit in critically ill patients with SIRS.


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