Three versions of Perceived Stress Scale: validation in a sample of Chinese cardiac patients who smoke

Leung, Doris Y. P.; Tai-hing Lam; Chan, Sophia S. C.
January 2010
BMC Public Health;2010, Vol. 10, p513
Academic Journal
Background: Smoking causes heart disease, the major cause of death in China and Hong Kong. Stress is one major trigger of smoking and relapse, and understanding stress among smoking cardiac patients can therefore help in designing effective interventions to motivate them to quit. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and to compare the appropriateness of the three versions of the scale (PSS-14, PSS-10, and PSS-4) among Chinese cardiac patients who were also smokers. Methods: From March 2002 to December 2004, 1860 cardiac patients who smoked were recruited at the cardiac outpatient clinics of ten acute hospitals in Hong Kong, and 1800 questionnaires were analysed. Participants completed a questionnaire including the PSS, nicotine dependence and certain demographic variables. The psychometric properties of the PSS were investigated: construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis, reliability using Cronbach's alpha and concurrent validity by examining the relationship with smoking- and health-related variables. Results: For all the three versions of the PSS, confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the 2-factor structure of the scale, with the positive and negative factors correlating significantly and negatively to a moderate extent (r < -0.5), and high Cronbach's alpha values for the two subscales (alpha > 0.5). All the correlations of the two subscales and the smoking- and health-related variables were statistically significant and in the expected directions although of small magnitudes, except daily cigarette consumption. Conclusions: The findings confirmed the satisfactory psychometric properties of all three Chinese versions of PSS. We recommend the use of PSS-10 for research which focuses on the two components of perceived stress, as it shows a higher reliability; and the use of PSS-4 if such partition is not essential and space for multiple measures is limited.


Related Articles

  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Small Urban Community in Central Croatia. Horvat, Davor // Collegium Antropologicum;Dec2003, Vol. 27 Issue 2, p541 

    The aim of this study was to determine in Karlovac (southern part of central Croatia) the most important risk factors for coronary heart diseases in men and women according to age ≤59 and ≥60 on the basis of their prevalence in 558 non-coronary patients and 442 symptomatic coronary...

  • Emergency department overcrowding and ambulance transport delays for patients with chest pain. Schull, Michael J.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Vermeulen, Marian; Redelmeier, Donald A. // CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal;2/4/2003, Vol. 168 Issue 3, p277 

    Abstract Objective: Emergency department overcrowding sometimes results in diversion of ambulances to other locations. We sought to determine the resulting prehospital delays for cardiac patients. Methods: Data on consecutive patients with chest pain who were transported to Toronto hospitals by...

  • GP BUSINESS: Taking on a CHD blackspot. Davis, Carol // GP: General Practitioner;11/24/2003, p40 

    A pioneering heart center Birkenhead Heart Center in Birkenhead, England is set up by a PCT looks set to cut coronary heart disease (CHD) in a deprived area where the death rate from the disease is more than twice the national average. The center will be staffed by GPs with special interests who...

  • COMMENTARY. Lancaster, Tim // Evidence Based Medicine;Sep2003, p158 

    The author reflects on the advantage of the study which illustrate the benefits of a nurse led secondary prevention clinics in improving the condition of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).

  • Cigarette Smoking and Coronary Heart Disease. Kannel, W.B. // Annals of Internal Medicine;Jun64, Vol. 60 Issue 6, p1103 

    Editorial. Discusses the correlation between cigarette smoking and coronary heart disease. Cigarette industry's approach to the problem associated with cigarette smoking; Effects of inhaled tobacco smoke on the respiratory tract.

  • Effects of Hyaluronidase Administration of Myocardial Ischemic Injury in Acute Infarction. Maroko, Peter R.; Davidson, Dennis M.; Libby, Peter; Hagan, Arthur D.; Braunwald, Eugen // Annals of Internal Medicine;Apr75, Vol. 82 Issue 4, p516 

    Examines the effectiveness of hyaluronidase administration on myocardial ischemic injury in acute infarction patients. Assessment of the rate of resolution of ST segment elevation using 35-electrode precordial mapping method; Impact of hyaluronidase on myocardial ischemic injury patients;...

  • Effect of exercise training on central aortic pressure wave reflection in coronary artery disease. Edwards, David G.; Schofield, Richard S.; Magyari, Peter M.; Nichols, Wilmer W.; Braith, Randy W. // American Journal of Hypertension;Jun2004, Vol. 17 Issue 6, p540 

    Background: Arterial stiffness is an important factor for cardiovascular performance and a predictor of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effect of exercise training on arterial stiffness in coronary artery disease (CAD).Methods: Arterial stiffness was assessed before and after 12 weeks...

  • CAD: Cutting back on cholesterol isn't enough. Cerrato, Paul L. // RN;Mar87, Vol. 50 Issue 3, p67 

    Presents nutritional guidelines on nursing care of patients with coronary artery disease. Foods low in cholesterol; Benefits of eating fatty fish; Conditions caused by magnesium deficiency.

  • Smoking cessation initiated during hospital stay for patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled trial. Smith, Patricia M.; Burgess, Ellen // CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal;6/23/2009, Vol. 180 Issue 13, p1297 

    Background: Programs for smoking cessation for cardiac patients are underused in Canada. We examined the efficacy of an intervention for smoking cessation for patients admitted to hospital for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or because of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Nurses...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics