Modulation of redox homeostasis under suboptimal conditions by Arabidopsis nudix hydrolase 7

Jambunathan, Niranjani; Penaganti, Anuradha; Yuhong Tang; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy
January 2010
BMC Plant Biology;2010, Vol. 10, p173
Academic Journal
Background: Nudix hydrolases play a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by hydrolyzing various nuceloside diphosphate derivatives and capped mRNAs. Several independent studies have demonstrated that Arabidopsis nudix hydrolase 7 (AtNUDT7) hydrolyzes NADH and ADP-ribose. Loss of function Atnudt7-1 mutant plants (SALK_046441) exhibit stunted growth, higher levels of reactive oxygen species, enhanced resistance to pathogens. However, using the same T-DNA line, two other groups reported that mutant plants do not exhibit any visible phenotypes. In this study we analyze plausible factors that account for differences in the observed phenotypes in Atnudt7. Secondly, we evaluate the biochemical and molecular consequences of increased NADH levels due to loss of function of AtNUDT7 in Arabidopsis. Results: We identified a novel conditional phenotype of Atnudt7-1 knockout plants that was contingent upon nutrient composition of potting mix. In nutrient-rich Metro-Mix, there were no phenotypic differences between mutant and wild-type (WT) plants. In the nutrient-poor mix (12 parts vermiculite: 3 parts Redi-earth and 1 part sand), mutant plants showed the characteristic stunted phenotype. Compared with WT plants, levels of glutathione, NAD+, NADH, and in turn NADH:NAD+ ratio were higher in Atnudt7-1 plants growing in 12:3:1 potting mix. Infiltrating NADH and ADP-ribose into WT leaves was sufficient to induce AtNUDT7 protein. Constitutive overexpression of AtNudt7 did not alter NADH levels or resistance to pathogens. Transcriptome analysis identified nearly 700 genes differentially expressed in the Atnudt7-1 mutant compared to WT plants grown in 12:3:1 potting mix. In the Atnudt7-1 mutant, genes associated with defense response, proteolytic activities, and systemic acquired resistance were upregulated, while gene ontologies for transcription and phytohormone signaling were downregulated. Conclusions: Based on these observations, we conclude that the differences observed in growth phenotypes of the Atnudt7-1 knockout mutants can be due to differences in the nutrient composition of potting mix. Our data suggests AtNUDT7 plays an important role in maintaining redox homeostasis, particularly for maintaining NADH: NAD+ balance for normal growth and development. During stress conditions, rapid induction of AtNUDT7 is important for regulating the activation of stress/defense signaling and cell death pathways.


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