Differences Between Sexes in Lower Extremity Alignment and Muscle Activation During Soccer Kick

Brophy, Robert H.; Backus, Sherry; Kraszewski, Andrew P.; Steele, Barbara C.; Yan Ma; Osei, Daniel; Williams, Riley J.
September 2010
Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, American Volume;Sep2010, Vol. 92-A Issue 11, p2050
Academic Journal
Background: Injury risk in soccer varies by sex. Female soccer players face a greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral problems, while male players are more likely to experience sports hernia symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that females have different lower-extremity alignment and muscle activation patterns than males during the soccer kick. Methods: Thirteen male and twelve female college soccer players underwent three-dimensional motion analysis and electromyography of seven muscles (iliacus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, ham-strings, and gastrocnemius) in both the kicking and the supporting lower extremity and two additional muscles (hip adductors and tibialis anterior) in the kicking limb only. Five instep and five side-foot kicks were recorded for each player. Muscle activation was recorded as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Results: The male soccer players had significantly higher mean muscle activation than their female counterparts with respect to the iliacus in the kicking limb (123% compared with 34% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction; p = 0.0007) and the gluteus medius (124% compared with 55%; p = 0.005) and vastus medialis muscles (139% compared with 69%; p = 0.002) in the supporting limb. The supporting limb reached significantly greater mean hip adduction during the stance phase of the kick in the females compared with that in the males (15° and 10°, respectively; p = 0.006). Conclusions: Differences between the sexes in lower extremity alignment and muscle activation occur during the soccer instep and side-foot kicks. Decreased activation of the hip abductors and greater hip adduction in the supporting limb during the soccer kick in female athletes may be associated with their increased risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Clinical Relevance: Programs targeting these differences in muscle activation and lower extremity alignment during the kick should be evaluated for use in injury prevention in soccer athletes. Future research is warranted to investigate how differences between the sexes at the hip may relate to differences in the risk of lower extremity injury among athletes in soccer and other sports.


Related Articles

  • Normal and ACL-Deficient In Situ Measurement of Patellofemoral Joint Contact. Boyd, Steven K.; Ronsky, Janet L. // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;May2000, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p111 

    Focuses on the existence of abnormal patellofemoral (PF) joint kinematics in knee joint due to the loss of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Measurement of PF kinematics in surface topology; Differences in joint contact between ACL-intact and ACL-deficient conditions; Assessment of joint stresses.

  • Anterior Knee Pain After Intramedullary Nailing of Fractures of the Tibial Shaft. Toivanen, Jarmo A.K.; Väistö, Olli; Kannus, Pekka; Latvala, Kyösti; Honkonen, Seppo E.; Järvinen, Markku J. // Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, American Volume;Apr2002, Vol. 84-A Issue 4, p580 

    Examines the use of peritendinous incision for the reduction of the intensity of anterior knee pain following intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture. Contact pressure in the patellofemoral articulation after nailing; Occurrence of anterior knee pain after reconstruction of the...

  • DOES GLUTEAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY CONTRIBUTE TO ACL INJURY AFTER QUADRICEPS FATIGUE? AN ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC STUDY. Shenoy, Shweta; Sharma, Priyanka; Sandhu, J. S. // Asian Journal of Exercise & Sports Science;2010, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p71 

    Neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) influences lower limb control during cutting which is likely to increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. Current literature, does not evidence the effect of quadriceps fatigue on activity of gluteal muscles during land-cut tasks. The primary aim of the...

  • Characteristics of the Activities of the Muscles Surrounding the Knee during Single-leg Squatting Performed by Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament injury. WATARU FUKUDA; SHIGEKI YOKOYAMA; YUSUKE KATAOKA; YUKA HAMANO; YUTARO IKENO; NORIYUKI GOMI // Rigakuryoho Kagaku;Mar/Apr2013, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p201 

    [Purpose] To investigate the characteristics of the activities of the muscles surrounding the knee during single-leg squatting performed by patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. [Subjects] Nine ACL injury patients and eight healthy subjects. [Method] The task was single-leg...

  • Two Modes of Weight Training Programs and Patellar Stabilization. Yiu-ming Wong; Suk-tak Chan; Kwok-wing Tang; Ng, Gabriel V. F. // Journal of Athletic Training (National Athletic Trainers' Associ;May/Jun2009, Vol. 44 Issue 3, p264 

    Context: Underconditioned patellar stabilizing muscles could be a predisposing factor for patellar instability. Objective: To examine the effect of 2 modes of weight training on the size of the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), the resting position and passive mobility of the patella, and the...

  • Dynamic Neuromuscular Control of the Lower Limbs in Response to Unexpected Single-Planar versus Multi-Planar Support Perturbations in Young, Active Adults. Malfait, Bart; Staes, Filip; de Vries, Aijse; Smeets, Annemie; Hawken, Malcolm; Robinson, Mark A.; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Verschueren, Sabine // PLoS ONE;7/29/2015, Vol. 10 Issue 7, p1 

    Purpose: An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury involves a multi-planar injury mechanism. Nevertheless, unexpected multi-planar perturbations have not been used to screen athletes in the context of ACL injury prevention yet could reveal those more at risk. The objective of this study was to...

  • Abstracts. Thompson, Clint // Journal of Athletic Training (National Athletic Trainers' Associ;Apr-Jun99, Vol. 34 Issue 2, p210 

    Reprints the abstract of the study `The Effects of Removal and Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament on Patellofemoral Kinematics,' by Y. Hsieh, L.F. Draganich, et al published in the 1998 issue of the `American Journal of Sports Medicine.'

  • Muscle Activation During Side-Step Cutting Maneuvers in Male and Female Soccer Athletes. Hanson, Ashley M.; Padua, Darin A.; Blackburn, J. Troy; Prentice, William E.; Hirth, Christopher J. // Journal of Athletic Training (National Athletic Trainers' Associ;Mar/Apr2008, Vol. 43 Issue 2, p133 

    Context: Female soccer athletes are at greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than males. Sex differences in muscle activation may contribute to the increased incidence of ACL injuries in female soccer athletes. Objective: To examine sex differences in lower extremity muscle...

  • Patient Selection for Nonoperative Management of Popliteal Artery Injuries. Mohan, Chittur R.; Sharp, William J.; Hoballah, Jamal J.; Boeve, Theodore; Kresowik, Timothy F.; Corson, John D. // Vascular Surgery;Jul/Aug1997, Vol. 31 Issue 4, p509 

    A twenty-six-year-old man was involved in a farming accident, whereby a corn head from a combine fell on his legs. He was transported by air care to the emergency room approximately seventy-five minutes after the accident. Upon examination the patient was alert with a pulse of 100/minute, blood...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics