Cooling rate and energy dependence of pulsed laser fabricated graphene on nickel at reduced temperature

Koh, A. T. T.; Foong, Y. M.; Chua, Daniel H. C.
September 2010
Applied Physics Letters;9/13/2010, Vol. 97 Issue 11, p114102
Academic Journal
Few-layer graphene was fabricated on nickel substrates using pulsed laser deposition at a relatively low temperature of 750 °C. The effects of cooling rate and laser energy on the ability to produce crystalline graphene layers were studied. It was observed that using a cooling rate of 1 and 50 °C/min produced few-layer graphene while the latter gave less defects. Laser energy was a less critical factor as long as the laser energy was below 100 mJ, however a higher laser energy was detrimental to the precipitation process. The mechanisms behind the observation of such phenomena are explained.


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