Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

Kumar, S. R. Sarath; Hedhili, Mohamed Nejib; Alshareef, H. N.; Kasiviswanathan, S.
September 2010
Applied Physics Letters;9/13/2010, Vol. 97 Issue 11, p111909
Academic Journal
Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.


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