Hillock formation on copper at room temperature by cleaning in ammonia vapor

Herley, P. J.; Greer, A. L.; Jones, W.
October 2001
Applied Physics Letters;10/22/2001, Vol. 79 Issue 17, p2725
Academic Journal
Rapidly solidified copper particles are formed by electron-beam decomposition of copper hydride. When exposed to aqueous ammonia vapor at room temperature, the surface of the particles is cleaned and etched, and it develops hillocks and incipient whiskers. Damage of this kind is associated with compressive stress in integrated-circuit metallization. The development of such damage without any elevated temperature appears facilitated by the surface cleaning, and may have implications for device processing. Some links with surface diffusivity and its proposed role in device reliability are also explored. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.


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