Effect of intermittent hypoxia on muscle and cerebral oxygenation during a 20-km time trial in elite athletes: a preliminary report

Hamlin, Michael J.; Marshall, Helen C.; Hellemans, John; Ainslie, Philip N.
August 2010
Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism;Aug2010, Vol. 35 Issue 4, p548
Academic Journal
The effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) on cerebral and muscle oxygenation, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and respiratory gas exchange during a 20-km cycle time trial (20TT) were examined (n = 9) in a placebo-controlled randomized design. IHE (7:3 min hypoxia to normoxia) involved 90-min sessions for 10 days, with SaO2 clamped at ~80%. Prior to, and 2 days after the intervention, a 20TT was performed. During the final minute of the 20TT, in the IHE group only, muscle oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) was elevated (mean ± 95% confidence interval 1.3 ± 1.2 ΔµM,p = 0.04), whereas cerebral oxy-Hb was reduced (-1.9% ± 1.0%, p < 0.01) post intervention compared with baseline. The 20TT performance was unchanged between groups (p = 0.7). In the IHE group, SaO2 was higher (1.0 ± 0.7Δ%, p = 0.006) and end-tidal PCO2was lower (-1.2 ± 0.1 mm Hg, p = 0.01) during the final stage of the 20TT post intervention compared with baseline. In summary, reductions in muscle oxy-Hb and systemic SaO2 occurring at exercise intensities close to maximal at the end of a 20TT were offset by IHE, although this was not translated into improved performance.


Related Articles

  • Effect of intermittent hypoxia on oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise in endurance athletes. Katayama, Keisho; Sato, Kohei; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Ishida, Koji; Iwasaki, Ken-ichi; Miyamura, Miharu // European Journal of Applied Physiology;Jun2004, Vol. 92 Issue 1/2, p75 

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the following: (1) whether steady state oxygen uptake (VO2) during exercise decreases after short-term intermittent hypoxia during a resting state in trained athletes and (2) whether the change in VO2 during submaximal exercise is correlated to the...

  • Influence of cerebral and muscle oxygenation on repeated-sprint ability. Smith, Kurt J.; Billaut, François; Billaut, François // European Journal of Applied Physiology;Jul2010, Vol. 109 Issue 5, p989 

    The study examined the influence of cerebral (prefrontal cortex) and muscle (vastus lateralis) oxygenation on the ability to perform repeated, cycling sprints. Thirteen team-sport athletes performed ten, 10-s sprints (with 30 s of rest) under normoxic (F(I)O(2) 0.21) and acute hypoxic (F(I)O(2)...

  • Cerebral oxygenation during the Richalet hypoxia sensitivity test and cycling time-trial performance in severe hypoxia. Bourdillon, Nicolas; Fan, Jui-Lin; Kayser, Bengt // European Journal of Applied Physiology;May2014, Vol. 114 Issue 5, p1037 

    Background: The Richalet hypoxia sensitivity test (RT), which quantifies the cardiorespiratory response to acute hypoxia during exercise at an intensity corresponding to a heart rate of ~130 bpm in normoxia, can predict susceptibility of altitude sickness. Its ability to predict exercise...

  • Endurance exercise performance in acute hypoxia is influenced by expiratory flow limitation. Weavil, Joshua; Duke, Joseph; Stickford, Jonathon; Stager, Joel; Chapman, Robert; Mickleborough, Timothy // European Journal of Applied Physiology;Aug2015, Vol. 115 Issue 8, p1653 

    Purpose: We sought to determine if expiratory flow limitation influences intensive aerobic exercise performance in mild hypoxia. Methods: Fourteen trained male cyclists were separated into flow-limited (FL, n = 7) and non-FL ( n = 7) groups based on the extent of expiratory flow limitation...

  • Beetroot juice does not enhance altitude running performance in well-trained athletes. Arnold, Josh Timothy; Oliver, Samuel James; Lewis-Jones, Tammy Maria; Wylie, Lee John; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo // Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism;Jun2015, Vol. 40 Issue 6, p590 

    We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (NO3-) provided as concentrated beetroot juice supplement would improve endurance running performance of well-trained runners in normobaric hypoxia. Ten male runners (mean (SD): sea level maximal oxygen uptake, 66 (7) mL·kg-1·min−1; 10 km...

  • The Effects of Exercise Under Hypoxia on Cognitive Function Ando, Soichi; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sudo, Mizuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki // PLoS ONE;May2013, Vol. 8 Issue 5, p1 

    Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive function improves during a single bout of moderate exercise. In contrast, exercise under hypoxia may compromise the availability of oxygen. Given that brain function and tissue integrity are dependent on a continuous and sufficient oxygen supply,...

  • Training Techniques to Improve Endurance Exercise Performances. Kubukeli, Z.N.; Noakes, T.D.; Dennis, S.C. // Sports Medicine;2002, Vol. 32 Issue 8, p489 

    In previously untrained individuals, endurance training improves peak oxygen uptake (O), increases capillary density of working muscle, raises blood volume and decreases heart rate during exercise at the same absolute intensity. In contrast, sprint training has a greater effect on muscle...

  • The individual response to training and competition at altitude. Chapman, Robert F. // British Journal of Sports Medicine;Dec2013 Supplement 1, p36 

    Performance in athletic activities that include a significant aerobic component at mild or moderate altitudes shows a large individual variation. Physiologically, a large portion of the negative effect of altitude on exercise performance can be traced to limitations of oxygen diffusion, either...

  • Comparison of Live High: Train Low Altitude and Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure. Humberstone-Gough, Clare E.; Saunders, Philo U.; Bonetti, Darrell L.; Stephens, Shaun; Bullock, Nicola; Anson, Judith M.; Gore, Christopher J. // Journal of Sports Science & Medicine;2013, Vol. 12 Issue 3, p394 

    Live High:Train Low (LHTL) altitude training is a popular ergogenic aid amongst athletes. An alternative hypoxia protocol, acute (60-90 min daily) Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure (IHE), has shown potential for improving athletic performance. The aim of this study was to compare directly the...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics