Risk Factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Deployed US Male Marines

Phillips, Christopher J.; LeardMann, Cynthia A.; Gumbs, Gia R.; Smith, Besa
January 2010
BMC Psychiatry;2010, Vol. 10, p52
Academic Journal
Background: Combat exposure has been reported as one of the strongest risk factors for postdeployment posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military service members. Determining the impact of specific deployment-related exposures on the risk of developing PTSD has not been fully explored. Our study objective was to explore the relationship between specific combat exposures and other life experiences with postdeployment PTSD. Methods: This study consisted of male Marines who completed a Recruit Assessment Program (RAP) survey during recruit training at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego, California as well as a follow-up survey several years after recruit training. Study participants included those Marines who deployed to the current operations in Iraq or Afghanistan between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine which significant exposures and experiences were associated with postdeployment PTSD. Results: Of the 706 study participants, 10.8% screened positive for postdeployment PTSD. Those who reported feeling in great danger of death (odds ratio [OR] = 4.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-8.73), were shot or seriously injured (OR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.58-7.77), saw someone wounded or killed (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.08-5.67), and baseline (before recruit training) prior violence exposures (OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.46-6.10) were at increased odds for reporting PTSD symptoms. Number of deployments, number of close friends or relatives reported at follow-up, and enlisted pay grade were also significantly associated with postdeployment PTSD. Conclusions: Combat exposures, specifically the threat of death, serious injury, and witnessing injury or death are significant risk factors for screening positive for postdeployment PTSD among male Marines as well as violence exposures prior to entering the Marine Corps, which are independent of future combat exposures. A thorough history of lifetime violence exposures should be pursued when considering a clinical diagnosis of PTSD.


Related Articles

  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression in Health Care Providers Returning from Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan. Kolkow, Tonya T.; Spira, James L.; Morse, Jennifer S.; Grieger, Thomas A. // Military Medicine;May2007, Vol. 172 Issue 5, p451 

    Objective: This study examines risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and mental health care use among health care workers deployed to combat settings. Methods: Anonymous surveys were administered to previously deployed workers at a military hospital. PTSD and...

  • Psychological Adjustment and Retention of Australian Army Reservists Following a Stability Operation. Orme, Geoffrey J.; Kehoe, E. James // Military Medicine;Nov2011, Vol. 176 Issue 11, p1223 

    Australian Army reservists (n = 92) and a comparable group of regulars (n = 90) were surveyed at the end of a 7-month deployment on a stability operation in Timor Leste and again approximately 6 months after returning to Australia. Both reservists and regulars displayed sound mental health, as...

  • Is Poor Sleep in Veterans a Function of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder? Lewis, Virginia; Creamer, Mark; Failla, Salvina // Military Medicine;Sep2009, Vol. 174 Issue 9, p948 

    Substantial research has demonstrated an association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and quality of sleep, particularly in veteran populations. The exact nature of this relationship, however, is not clear. The possibility that poor sleep is a more general experience among veterans...

  • Effects of Iraq/Afghanistan Deployments on PTSD Diagnoses for Still Active Personnel in All Four Services. Yu-Chu Shen; Arkes, Jeremy; Boon Wah Kwan; Lai Yee Tan; Williams, Thomas V. // Military Medicine;Oct2010, Vol. 175 Issue 10, p763 

    We estimate the effect of deployment location and length on risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We draw a random sample of active duty enlisted personnel serving between 2001 and 2006 from a TRICARE beneficiary database and link deployment characteristics from the...

  • Description of Risk and Resilience Factors among Military Medical Personnel before Deployment to Iraq. Maguen, Shira; Turcotte, Diane M.; Peterson, Alan L.; Dremsa, Theresa L.; Garb, Howard N.; McNally, Richard J.; Litz, Brett T. // Military Medicine;Jan2008, Vol. 173 Issue 1, p1 

    Military medical personnel preparing for deployment to Iraq (N - 328) participated in a survey concerning predeployment risk and resilience factors. Participants reported exposure to an average of 2.5 potentially traumatic events before deployment and 76% (n = 229) reported at least two current...

  • Screening Soldiers in Outpatient Care for Mental Health Concerns. Gahm, Gregory A.; Lucenko, Barbara A. // Military Medicine;Jan2008, Vol. 173 Issue 1, p17 

    Significant recent effort has been directed toward screening and describing military populations in relation to deployment. Missing from these recent efforts is information describing screened mental health symptoms for the population of active duty military that are seen for mental health...

  • Mental illness in deployed soldiers. Ursano, RJ; Benedek, DM; Engel, CC // BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition);9/22/2007, Vol. 335 Issue 7620, p571 

    This editorial comments on a study in this issue about the psychological toll of repeated deployments to war zones. The study found that soldiers who were deployed for more than 12 months out of 36 were more likely to have mental health problems. The study also found that post-traumatic stress...

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder among people exposed to the Ventotene street disaster in Rome. Raja, Michele; Onofri, Antonio; Azzoni, Antonella; Borzellino, Bruno; Melchiorre, Nicoletta // Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health;2008, Vol. 4, Special section p1 

    Objective: To test five hypotheses on Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): 1) Is PTSD the most prevalent disorder after trauma? 2) Is the proximity to the disaster related to the risk of PTSD? 3) Is PTSD associated with child mourning or separation, previous stress, or familiarity for...

  • Part 1: Dealing with Death and Non-Death Types of Loss in the Community. Olson, Mark // Minnesota Fire Chief;Jul/Aug2006, Vol. 42 Issue 6, p52 

    The article discusses the types of loss caused by fires or accidents and their psychological impact on survivors. Loss from death and loss not related to death are the two general types of loss that all people experience. It cites some of the signs and symptoms manifested by families or...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics