The influence of parental smoking and family type on saliva cotinine in UK ethnic minority children: a cross sectional study

Whitrow, Melissa J.; Harding, Seeromanie; Maynard, Maria J.
January 2010
BMC Public Health;2010, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p262
Academic Journal
journal article
Background: In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in cigarette smoking in ethnic minority adults since the 1970s; in some groups levels are now similar to that of White British people. We aimed to examine the determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke in ethnic minority children. We hypothesised that exposure to secondhand smoke in children will vary across ethnic groups, but that the correlates of exposure would be similar to that of Whites.Methods: The Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health sample comprises 3468 White United Kingdom and ethnic minority (Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi) pupils aged 11-13 yrs. Outcome was saliva cotinine concentration. Explanatory variables collected by self-complete questionnaire included ethnicity, child reported household smoking and socio-economic circumstances. Data were analysed using linear regression models with a random intercept function.Results: Ethnic minority children had lower saliva cotinine than Whites, partly explained by less smoking among parents. White and Black Caribbean children had higher cotinine levels if they lived in a household with a maternal smoker only, than with a paternal smoker only. Living in a lone compared to a dual parent household was associated with increased cotinine concentration of 45% (95%CI 5, 99%) in Whites, 27% (95%CI 5,53%) in Black Caribbeans and 21% (95%CI 1, 45%) in Black Africans after adjusting for household smoking status. Material disadvantage was a significant correlate only for White children (40% (95%CI 1, 94%) increase in cotinine in least compared to most advantaged group).Conclusions: Ethnic minority children were less exposed to secondhand smoke than Whites, but the variations within groups were similarly patterned. These findings suggest that it is important not to be complacent about low smoking prevalence in some minority groups.


Related Articles

  • Secondhand Smoke & Children.  // Massage & Bodywork;Dec/Jan2003, Vol. 17 Issue 6, p15 

    Reports on the health risk of secondhand smoke to the children. Cause of respiratory and behavior problems in children; Association of smoking to the low level of intelligence; Identification of tobacco exposure levels.

  • Children exposed to 80 per cent less smoke.  // Community Practitioner;Aug2015, Vol. 88 Issue 8, p18 

    The article presents a survey published in a 2015 issue of the scientific journal "Addiction," which showed that the number of children in Great Britain who were exposed to second-hand smoke has declined by 80% since 1998.

  • Breathtaking evidence. Helena, Dame // Nursery World (Haymarket Business Publications Ltd);6/5/2008, Vol. 108 Issue 4123, p12 

    The author stresses the importance of ensuring the safety of children's lungs. She notes that once lungs are damaged, they seldom recover. She cites evidence which reveals an estimated 17,000 children being hospitalised each year in Great Britain as a result of passive smoking. The author also...

  • Exposure of pre-school children to passive cigarette and narghile smoke in Beirut. Tamim, Hala; Akkary, Ghassan; El-Zein, Abbas; el-Roueiheb, Zana; El-Chemaly, Souheil // European Journal of Public Health;Oct2006, Vol. 16 Issue 5, p509 

    Background: Narghile is a resurging smoking device. However, little research has been done to assess passive smoking exposure. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the exposure of pre-school age children in Beirut to parental passive smoking from cigarette and/or narghile. Methods:...

  • Ask Doctor Cory. SerVaas, Cory // Children's Digest;Jan/Feb94, Vol. 44 Issue 409, p46 

    Presents questions and answers about health for children. Risks from secondhand smoke; Asthma attacks; Hours of sleep need by children.

  • Ask Doctor Cory. SerVaas, Cory // Children's Playmate Magazine;Apr/May94, Vol. 66 Issue 3, p46 

    Presents questions and answers concerning children's health. tips in dealing with ticks; Danger from secondhand smoke; Washing of fruits.

  • Environmental tobacco smoke in Norwegian homes, 1995 and 2001: changes in children's exposure and parents attitudes and health risk awareness. Lund, Karle E.; Helgason, Ásgeir R. // European Journal of Public Health;Apr2005, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p123 

    Background: The aims of the present study were to assess changes between 1995 and 2001 in the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), attitudes towards ETS among parents of small children and awareness among parents regarding the potential hazards of passive smoking to...

  • Smoke Gets in Their Ears. Weber, Linda // Baby Talk;Jun/Jul98, Vol. 63 Issue 5, p21 

    Discusses the health risks posed by secondhand smoke on infants. Risks of developing middle-ear infection among children who live with two or more smokers during their first three years of life; How parents who smoke can reduce their child's health risk; Other ways to reduce the health risk of...

  • Passive smoking is major hazard to children's health.  // Practice Nurse;4/9/2010, Vol. 39 Issue 7, p7 

    The article reports on the result of a study conducted by the Royal College of Physicians in Great Britain suggesting that passive smoking at home represents a major hazard to children who live with smokers.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics