TITLE

Folic acid fortification and public health: Report on threshold doses above which unmetabolised folic acid appear in serum

AUTHOR(S)
Sweeney, Mary Rose; McPartlin, Joseph; Scott, John
PUB. DATE
January 2007
SOURCE
BMC Public Health;2007, Vol. 7, p41
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Background: All flour in the USA is fortified with folic acid at a level of 140 μg/100 g which is estimated to supply an extra 100 μg daily to the average diet. Some researchers have advocated that this be increased to double and even four times this amount. Based on previous research these higher levels are likely to lead to the appearance of unmetabolised vitamin in the circulation, which may have safety implications for sub-groups of the population. The UK and the Republic of Ireland will likely introduce mandatory fortification also in the next year or so. The aim of this study was to capture the short-term effect of folic acid fortification on unmetabolised folic acid in serum after chronic consumption of folic acid. Methods: After pre-saturation with 400 μg folic acid supplements daily for 14-weeks, healthy folate replete adults (n = 20) consumed folic acid fortified bread, at three different levels (400 μg, 200 μg, 100 μg) over a period of one week each. The dose was administered in two-equal sized slices consumed at 09.00 hrs and 13.00 hrs. Serum samples for total folate and folic acid were collected at baseline, after 14-weeks of supplementation, and pre and post (at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours) each dose tested. Results: Unmetabolised folic acid was detected after the 14-week supplementation period. Folic acid was not detected in either the 200 μg or 100 μg (current US regime) doses tested but was present at the highest level (400 μg) tested. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that persons exposed to the current US fortification programme supplying an average of 100 μg per day or less are unlikely to have unmetabolised folic acid in serum. It also seems that daily consumption of the higher level of 200 μg or less is unlikely to be problematic. Increasing the level however to 400 μg on the other hand is likely to lead to unmetabolised folic acid appearance.
ACCESSION #
52027404

 

Related Articles

  • Sociodemographic Patterns in Spina Bifida Birth Prevalance Trends -- North Carolina, 1995-1999. Meyer, Robert E.; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria // MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report;9/13/2002 Supplement RR-13, Vol. 51 Issue 36, p12 

    Assesses the impact that folic acid public health initiatives have had on spina bifida rates among sociodemographic subpopulations in North Carolina using the data from the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Variation of the magnitude of the decline; Subgroups for which targeted...

  • Comparative evaluation of serum folic acid levels in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis. B., Sumona; S., Sheetal; M., Anil; P., Suvarna // Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science;Apr2011, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p83 

    Objectives: Folic acid is a vitamin which belongs to the B-complex group. It is critical to cellular division and new cell production because it is an essential co-factor in DNA synthesis. Repair and maintenance of periodontal tissue generates a high turnover rate of squamous epithelium. Without...

  • SEASONAL FOLATE SERUM CONCENTRATIONS AT DIFFERENT NUTRITION. Krajčovičová-Kudláčková, Marica; Valachovičová, Martina; Blažiček, Pavel // Central European Journal of Public Health;Mar2013, Vol. 21 Issue 1, p36 

    Folic acid (vitamin B9) rich sources are leafy green vegetables, legumes, whole grains, egg yolk, liver, and citrus fruit. In winter and early spring, there could be insufficient supply of vegetables and fruit and thus lower intake of folic acid and possible deficient folic acid blood...

  • Autoantibodies to Folate Receptors in the Cerebral Folate Deficiency Syndrome. Ramaekers, Vincent T.; Rothenberg, Sheldon P.; Sequeira, Jeffrey M.; Opladen, Thomas; Blau, Nenad; Quadros, Edward V.; Selhub, Jacob // New England Journal of Medicine;5/12/2005, Vol. 352 Issue 19, p1985 

    In infantile-onset cerebral folate deficiency, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid are low, but folate levels in the serum and erythrocytes are normal. We examined serum specimens from 28 children with cerebral folate deficiency, 5 of their mothers, 28 age-matched...

  • Estimation and correlation of serum folic acid levels in spina bifida babies and their mothers. Gupta, D. K.; Pandey, A.; Gangopadhyay, A. N.; Prasad, S.; Singh, T. B.; Khanna, H. D.; Upadhyaya, V. D. // Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences;Jul-Dec2008, Vol. 3 Issue 2, p134 

    Spina bifida is a common neural tube defect. The relative deficiency of folic acid (FA) in mother during periconceptional period is an important factor. We measured the serum FA levels in spina bifida babies and their mothers and compared the result with the FA level in normal babies. The blood...

  • Folate intake estimated with an updated database and its association to blood folate and homocysteine in Korean college students. Han, Y. H.; Yon, M.; Hyun, T. H. // European Journal of Clinical Nutrition;Feb2005, Vol. 59 Issue 2, p246 

    OBJECTIVE:: To measure folate content in cooked foods commonly consumed in Korea for evaluating its relation to folate nutriture of college students. DESIGN:: Folate content in 32 raw and cooked foods was measured by microbiological assay after trienzyme extraction. These values and the...

  • Folate deficiency in an unselected population in Calgary, Alberta and its relationship with red blood cell macrocytosis. Budd, Matthew; Naugler, Christopher // BMC Research Notes;Jul2015, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p1 

    Background: Folate deficiency is rare in western countries and therefore blood tests for folate level have limited indications. One such indication is red cell macrocytosis, however it is unclear if the association of macrocytosis with folate deficiency is robust enough to serve as a risk...

  • Clinical Utility of Folic Acid Testing for Patients with Anemia or Dementia. Ashraf, M. Javed; Cook, James R.; Rothberg, Michael B. // JGIM: Journal of General Internal Medicine;Jun2008, Vol. 23 Issue 6, p824 

    Serum folic acid tests are routinely ordered by physicians for evaluating anemia and sometimes ordered for evaluating dementia and altered mental status. To determine the utility of routine folic acid testing for patients with anemia or dementia/altered mental status in the era of folic acid...

  • Achieving a Public Health Recommendation for Preventing Neural Tube Defects With Folic Acid. Werler, Martha M.; Louik, Carol; Mitchell, Allen A. // American Journal of Public Health;Nov99, Vol. 89 Issue 11, p1637 

    Provides information on a study which examined approaches to achieving the public health recommendation that all women of childbearing age ingest 0.40 milligram of folic acid per day to reduce the occurrence of neural tube defects. Methods; Results and discussion.

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics