Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii surface antigen 2 gene (SAG2). Relevance of genotype I in clinical toxoplasmosis

Sabaj, Valeria; Galindo, Mario; Silva, Daniela; Sandoval, Lea; Rodríguez, Juan
July 2010
Molecular Biology Reports;Jul2010, Vol. 37 Issue 6, p2927
Academic Journal
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful protozoan parasites given its ability to manipulate the immune system and establish a chronic infection. It is a parasite with a significant impact on human health, mainly in immunocompromised patients. In Europe and North America, only a few clonal genotypes (I, II and III) seem to be responsible for the vast majority of Toxoplasma infections. Surface antigen 2 gene (SAG2) has been extensively used for genotyping T. gondii isolates. The analysis of this locus reveals that in Northern hemisphere, human disease causing isolates are mainly type II, whereas T. gondii isolated from different animals are both type II and III. Since the immune response depends on parasite genotype, it seems relevant to characterize parasites producing human toxoplasmosis in different geographical areas. The growing information about the prevalent T. gondii genotypes in South America mostly refers to domestic animals. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from clinical samples in Chile, South America. All the samples analyzed corresponded to SAG2 type I isolates, and they differ from classic SAG2 type I by genetic polymorphisms. This study contributes to the scarce available information on T. gondii at South America, and reinforces an emerging concept suggesting that SAG2 type I, rather than II, parasites are a frequent cause of clinical toxoplasmosis in this continent.


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