Tropical Cyclone Initialization with a Spherical High-Order Filter and an Idealized Three-Dimensional Bogus Vortex

In-Hyuk Kwon; Hyeong-Bin Cheong
April 2010
Monthly Weather Review;Apr2010, Vol. 138 Issue 4, p1344
Academic Journal
A tropical cyclone initialization method with an idealized three-dimensional bogus vortex of an analytic empirical formula is presented for the track and intensity prediction. The procedure in the new method consists of four steps: the separation of the disturbance from the analysis, determination of the tropical cyclone domain, generation of symmetric bogus vortex, and merging of it with the analysis data. When separating the disturbance field, an efficient spherical high-order filter with the double-Fourier series is used whose cutoff scale can be adjusted with ease to the horizontal scale of the tropical cyclone of interest. The tropical cyclone domain is determined from the streamfunction field instead of the velocities. The axisymmetric vortex to replace the poorly resolved tropical cyclone in the analysis is designed in terms of analytic empirical functions with a careful treatment of the upper-layer flows as well as the secondary circulations. The geopotential of the vortex is given in such a way that the negative anomaly in the lower layer is changed into positive anomaly above the prescribed pressure level, which depends on the intensity of the tropical cyclone. The geopotential is then used to calculate the tangential wind and temperature using the gradient wind balance and the hydrostatic balance, respectively. The inflow and outflow in the tropical cyclone are constructed to resemble closely the observed or simulated structures under the constraint of mass balance. The bogus vortex is merged with the disturbance field with the use of matching principle so that it is not affected except near the boundary of tropical cyclone domain. The humidity of the analysis is modified to be very close to the saturation in the lower layers near the tropical cyclone center. The balanced bogus vortex of the present study is completely specified on the basis of four parameters from the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) report and the additional two parameters, which are derived from the analysis data. The initialization method was applied to the track and the intensity (in terms of central pressure) prediction of the TCs observed in the western North Pacific Ocean and East China Sea in 2007 with the use of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. No significant initial jump or abrupt change was seen in either momentum or surface pressure during the time integration, thus indicating a proper tropical cyclone initialization. Relative to the results without the tropical cyclone initialization and the forecast results of RSMC Tokyo, the present method presented a great improvement in both the track and intensity prediction.


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