Iatrogenic and Noniatrogenic Extrahepatic Biliary Tract Injuries: A Multi-Institutional Review

Sawaya Jr., David E.; Johnson, Lester W.; Sittig, Kevin; McDonald, John C.; Zibari, Gazi B.
May 2001
American Surgeon;May2001, Vol. 67 Issue 5, p473
Academic Journal
Traumatic and iatrogenic extrahepatic biliary tract injuries are rare but may lead to exceedingly morbid complications. Traumatic extrahepatic biliary tract injuries represent less than 1 per cent of all traumatic injuries. Iatrogenic injuries result in 0.2 to 1 per cent of laparoscopic or open cholecystectomies. The objective of this study was to review the incidence of biliary tract injuries--iatrogenic as well as traumatic--and their subsequent management. A multi-institutional chart review was done including Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC)Shreveport, LSUHSC-Monroe, and Richland Parish medical centers. Charts were reviewed for patients with iatrogenic biliary tract injuries and those with biliary tract injuries related to noniatrogenic trauma. The etiology of the biliary tract injury, symptoms of injury, pertinent laboratory and radiologic studies, injury-to-diagnosis time, type of biliary tract injury, injury management, days hospitalized, intensive care unit stay, and complications were reviewed. There are 1500 trauma patients admitted to LSUMC-Shreveport each year. The incidence of biliary tract injury in trauma patients admitted to LSUMC is 0.1 per cent. Traumatic injuries were classified according to the injury scale by Mattox et al. (Trauma 1996; Vol 515). There were five Type II, four Type IV, and two Type V injuries. Five patients underwent cholecystectomy, three had endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with stent placement, and two had choledochojejunostomy; one patient died from associated injuries. There were no complications of repair. Approximately 220 cholecystectomies are done at LSUMC-Shreveport each year. Eighty-eight per cent are laparoscopic, and 12 per cent are open. The incidence of iatrogenic biliary tract injuries at LSUMC-Shreveport during the past 8 years was 0.2 per cent. Immediate diagnosis of iatrogenic injuries was made in five of 17 cases and eight of 11 trauma cases. Laparoscopic injur...


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