TITLE

Achieving a Low Ground Resistance using Critical Resistance Area Concept

AUTHOR(S)
Eduful, George; Cole, Joseph Ekow; Okyere, Philip Yaw
PUB. DATE
June 2010
SOURCE
AIP Conference Proceedings;6/17/2010, Vol. 1247 Issue 1, p145
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Based on response curves derived from field measurements, optimum number of vertical ground electrodes for grounding electrical installation is determined. On sites where the optimum number of the electrodes cannot reach a target ground resistance, a ‘critical resistance area concept’ with conductive backfills is used. In this study, efficiencies of local conductive backfills for reducing ground resistance are investigated. Results show that application of tyre ashes as a conductive backfills lowers ground resistance to over 80%. It is also shown that the most favourable benefit in the ground resistance improvement is to limit the backfill to four ground electrodes.
ACCESSION #
51526883

 

Related Articles

  • The full-voltage effect and the optimal modes of the pulsed conditioning of electrodes in a vacuum. Emel’yanov, A.; Emel’yanova, E.; Kubyshkina, M. // Instruments & Experimental Techniques;Mar/Apr2005, Vol. 48 Issue 2, p219 

    The effect of full voltage on the efficiency of the pulsed conditioning of electrodes in a vacuum is assessed. The efficiency of optimal conditioning modes, estimated from the quality of the cathode surface relative to gaps of centimeter length and long-acting voltage, increases by more than two...

  • Size-variable droplet actuation by interdigitated electrowetting electrode. Chen, Jianfeng; Yu, Yuhua; Li, Jia; Lai, Yongjun; Zhou, Jia // Applied Physics Letters;12/3/2012, Vol. 101 Issue 23, p234102 

    We propose electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) electrodes to actuate size-variable droplets. By using interdigitated fingers and maximizing them in optimized construction, we can control droplets in different sizes with the same electrode array automatically. We both do the theory calculation...

  • Printing electrode for top-contact molecular junction. Ojima, Kaoru; Otsuka, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Kawai, Tomoji; Nakamatsu, Kenichiro; Matsui, Shinji // Applied Physics Letters;12/5/2005, Vol. 87 Issue 23, p234110 

    We have developed a fabrication method of electrodes for molecular electronics based on nanotransfer printing lithography using a release agent layer and without any surface modification. A gold layer deposited on a release agent layer coating a mold can transfer to the nonmodified surfaces of...

  • Thermally activated non-linearity of device in resistance-switching memory for cross-point array applications. Woo, Jiyong; Kim, Seonghyun; Lee, Wootae; Lee, Daeseok; Park, Sangsu; Choi, Godeuni; Cha, Euijun; Hwang, Hyunsang // Applied Physics Letters;3/25/2013, Vol. 102 Issue 12, p122115 

    We report a TiOx-based resistance-switching device that exhibits non-linearity in the low resistance state (LRS) under high operating current conditions for cross-point array applications. The transition of the conduction behavior in the LRS from linear to non-linear type was observed in the...

  • Evaluation of tantalum silicon alloy systems as gate electrodes. Luan, H.; Alshareef, H. N.; Lysaght, P. S.; Harris, H. R.; Wen, H. C.; Choi, K.; Senzaki, Y.; Majhi, P.; Lee, B.-H. // Applied Physics Letters;11/21/2005, Vol. 87 Issue 21, p212110 

    The effect of Si concentration on the effective work function of tantalum silicon (Ta–Si) alloy systems as gate electrodes in direct contact with SiO2 and HfSiOx gate dielectrics has been studied extensively. It was found that the Si concentration in the Ta–Si electrodes (>=60 at....

  • Programs calculate 1% and ratio-resistor pairs. Rutschow, Carl // EDN;12/16/2005, Vol. 50 Issue 26, p66 

    The article explores the idea of using computer programs to calculate all combinations of standard 1% resistors. Forming resistors of unusual values can be achieved by connecting two standard-value resistors of 1% tolerance in parallel. Visual Basic has the ability to check all standard...

  • Enhancement of film-forming reactions for microcrystalline Si growth in atmospheric-pressure plasma using porous carbon electrode. Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Ohmi, Hiromasa; Inudzuka, Ryohei; Ouchi, Kentaro; Yasutake, Kiyoshi // Journal of Applied Physics;Sep2008, Vol. 104 Issue 5, p053522 

    We have investigated the structural and electrical properties of microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) films deposited with high rates (≥5 nm/s) at 220 °C in atmospheric-pressure He/H2/SiH4 plasma excited by a 150 MHz, very high-frequency (VHF) power. For this purpose, Si films are...

  • Colossal electroresistance effect at metal electrode/La1-xSr1+xMnO4 interfaces. Tokunaga, Y.; Kaneko, Y.; He, J. P.; Arima, T.; Sawa, A.; Fujii, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y. // Applied Physics Letters;5/29/2006, Vol. 88 Issue 22, p223507 

    We have studied the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and resistance switching at the interface between metal electrodes M (=Pt, Au, Ag, Al, Ti, and Mg) and atomically flat cleaved (001) surfaces of La1-xSr1+xMnO4 (x=0–1.0) single crystals by using a three-probe method. Hysteretic I-V...

  • Two-dimensional electrostatic force field measurements with simultaneous topography measurement on embedded interdigitated nanoelectrodes using a force distance curve based method. Jenke, Martin Günter; Santschi, Christian; Hoffmann, Patrik // Applied Physics Letters;2/11/2008, Vol. 92 Issue 6, p063113 

    Accurate simultaneous measurements on the topography and electrostatic force field of 500 nm pitch interdigitated electrodes embedded in a thin SiO2 layer in a plane perpendicular to the orientation of the electrodes are shown for the first time. A static force distance curve (FDC) based method...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics