Seasonal variance of 25-(OH) vitamin D in the general population of Estonia, a Northern European country

Kull, Jr., Mart; Kallikorm, Riina; Tamm, Anu; Lember, Margus
January 2009
BMC Public Health;2009, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p22
Academic Journal
Background: Vitamin D has a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body. There is increasing evidence that low serum levels of this vitamin have an important role in the pathogenesis of different skeletal and extra-skeletal diseases. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common at northern latitudes. There are few population-based studies in the northern European region looking at the issue in a wider age group. We aimed to measure Vitamin D level in the general population of Estonia (latitude 59°N), a North-European country where dairy products are not fortified with vitamin D. Methods: The study subjects were a population-based random selection of 367 individuals (200 women and 167 men, mean age 48.9 ± 12.2 years, range 25-70 years) from the registers of general health care providers. 25-(OH) vitamin D (25(OH)D) level and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured in summer and in winter. Additionally age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and self-reported sunbathing habits were recorded. Results: The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration in winter was 43.7 ± 15 nmol/L and in summer 59.3 ± 18 nmol/L (p < 0.0001). In winter 73% of the subjects had 25(OH)D insufficiency (25(OH)D concentration below 50 nmol/L) and 8% had deficiency (25(OH)D below 25 nmol/L). The corresponding percentages in summer were 29% for insufficiency and less than 1% for deficiency. PTH reached a plateau at around 80 nmol/L. BMI and age were inversely associated with 25(OH)D, but lost significance when adjusted for sunbathing habits. A difference in the seasonal 25(OH)D amplitude between genders (p = 0.01) was revealed. Conclusion: Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent throughout the year in a population without vitamin D dairy fortification living at the latitude of 59°N.


Related Articles

  • news notes.  // Better Nutrition;Apr2005, Vol. 67 Issue 4, p14 

    This article reports that scientists have found that a popular bone-building drug added to vitamin D and calcium therapy for Crohn's disease was not beneficial— but supplementation with just these nutrients alone improved bone density in Crohn's patients. It is also informed that the U.S....

  • The latest word... ON THE NEWEST RESEARCH.  // Alive: Canada's Natural Health & Wellness Magazine;Aug2009, Issue 322, p106 

    The article offers information on various health studies. A research found a relationship between vitamin D levels and an increase chance of death for critically ill patients. Patients with high vitamin B blood levels have 51% chance of reduced risk of diagnosis with colorectal cancer. Another...

  • SYNERGETIC EFFECT OF VITAMIN D3 SUPPLEMENTATION FOR MUSCLE HEALTH OF WEIGHTLIFTERS IN PAKISTAN. Butt, Zafar Iqbal; Akhtar, Tanveer; Adnan, Muhammad Abdul Jabar; Saeed, Nauman // Science International;Jul/Aug2015, Vol. 27 Issue 4, p3311 

    The possible impact of vitamin D on skeletal muscle edifice and purpose is getting a lot of consideration on the premise of together elementary and clinical science research. Muscle strength and power production are the key factors for weightlifting. Copious concern is shown towards the...

  • vitamin D. EDELSTEIN, JULIA // Real Simple;Apr2013, Vol. 14 Issue 4, p50 

    The article presents questions and answers related to vitamin D such as, why so many people lack vitamin D, how much vitamin D one need, and vitamin D source from sun.

  • Vitamin D and you.  // Asian Pacific Post;6/30/2011, p5 

    The article offers tips on how to get the daily requirement for Vitamin D.

  • calcitriol.  // Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (2009);2009, Issue 21, p338 

    An encyclopedia entry for "calcitriol," which refers to the active hormone form of vitamin D that promotes the calcium and phosphate absorption in the intestines is presented.

  • Pattern of Vitamin D Status in Health and Disease. Bhuyan, Moni P. // Indian Journal of Pathology: Research & Practice;Jan-Jun2015, Vol. 4 Issue 1, p17 

    Background: A ten year old male child presented with altered behaviour, low intelligence quotient and skin lesions. The child also had respiratory discomfort and palpitations. On investigation, a cardiac rhabdomyoma was located and excised. The skin lesions were ash leaf macules[1], shagreen...

  • R&D NEWS.  // Dairy Field;Apr2006, Vol. 189 Issue 4, p54 

    The article reports on news developments related to dairy processors in the United States as of April 2006. The Sillikar Group Corp. has acquired the Clabo Group, a network of food testing and consulting laboratories in France. Four servings of dairy a day reduces the serious risks to pregnant...

  • Effect of age, gender and calciotropic hormones on the relationship between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density. Arabi, A.; Mahfoud, Z.; Zahed, L.; El-Onsi, L.; Fuleihan, G. El-Hajj // European Journal of Clinical Nutrition;Apr2010, Vol. 64 Issue 4, p383 

    Background/Objectives:Hypovitaminosis D is a major public health problem worldwide and unexpectedly more so in sunny countries. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is associated with inter-individual variance in bone mineral density (BMD). Studies assessing the effect of VDR gene polymorphisms on BMD...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics