Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Koelen, Jurrijn; Smit, Filip; Schoevers, Robert
January 2008
BMC Public Health;2008, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p17
Academic Journal
Background: Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Methods: The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV) in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18-65). The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF) and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement). Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Results: Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders). The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders) in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Conclusion: Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among the inhabitants of more urbanized areas. probably because of environmental stressors.


Related Articles

  • The persistence of psychiatric deviance from the age of 8 to the age of 15 years. Kumpulainen, K.; Räsänen, E.; Henttonen, I.; Hämäläinen, M.; Roine, S.; Räsänen, E; Hämäläinen, M // Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology;2000, Vol. 35 Issue 1, p5 

    Background: Earlier research has shown that psychiatric problems in children tend to persist over years. This investigation assessed the persistence of psychiatric deviance among children over a 7-year period from the age of 8 to the age of 15 years. We also explored the...

  • Ethics of psychiatric genetics. Lowry, Stella // BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition);7/8/89, Vol. 298 Issue 6691, p77 

    Reports on the international symposium on ethical implications of genetics for psychiatry in Great Britain. Threat of molecular genetic research on the fight of long term mentally ill; Calls for a resolution in determining the carrier state of physical disorder; Dilemma on the potential abuse...

  • Thyroid function and postpartum psychiatric disorders. Okano, T. // Archives of Women's Mental Health;1998, Vol. 1 Issue 4, p157 

    It is well known that pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated in some women with pathological changes in thyroid function. On the other hand, the relationship of psychiatric disorders with thyroid dysfunction is also well accepted. However, the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid...

  • Psychiatric disorders in adults diagnosed as children with atypical autism. A case control study. Mouridsen, S. E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T. // Journal of Neural Transmission;Jan2008, Vol. 115 Issue 1, p135 

    The prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in a clinical sample of 89 individuals with atypical autism (AA) first seen as children, and 258 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The average observation...

  • INTRODUCTION. Libal, Autumn; Johnson, Mary Ann // Drug Therapy & Impulse Control Disorders;2003, p7 

    The article deals with psychiatric disorders in children. Teenagers have reason to be interested in psychiatric disorders and their treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders in children between six and eighteen years old are well studied and documented in the scientific...

  • The separation of mothers and babies in the treatment of postpartum psychotic disorders in Britain 1900-1960. Howard, L. M. // Archives of Women's Mental Health;2000, Vol. 3 Issue 1, p1 

    Background: In the first half of the twentieth century, women with postpartum psychotic disorders were routinely separated from their babies, whether they were cared for at home or in asylums. Treatment of mothers with their infants started in the 1950s but the reasons for this change in policy...

  • Puerperal Insanity in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Anis-Ur-Rehman; St Clair, David; Platz, Christine // British Journal of Psychiatry;Jun90, Vol. 156, p861 

    All patients with puerperal psychosis admitted to the Royal Edinburgh Hospital within 90 days of childbirth during the periods 1880-90 and 1971-80 were compared. The majority of cases in both groups had an affective illness with an acute presentation and a fixed interval of onset. The...

  • Maternal psychopathology and prediction of outcome based on mother-infant interaction ratings (BMIS). Hipwell, A.E.; Kumar, R. // British Journal of Psychiatry;Nov96, Vol. 169, p655 

    Background: Very little is known about the adequacy and safety of maternal parenting behaviour in the context of severe postpartum psychiatric illness, about specific difficulties in relation to different types of mental illness, or about the potential for improvement over the...

  • Psychiatric disorders in students in six French universities: 12-month prevalence, comorbidity, impairment and help-seeking. Verger, Pierre; Guagliardo, Valérie; Gilbert, Fabien; Rouillon, Frédéric; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane // Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology;Feb2010, Vol. 45 Issue 2, p189 

    Few studies have explored the prevalence of psychiatric disorders (PD) among university students. This article aims to study 12-month prevalence of PD in university students, their socio-economic correlates, impairment in daily life and help-seeking behaviours. Cross-sectional study of randomly...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics