Social inequalities in self-rated health by age: cross-sectional study of 22,457 middle-aged men and women

McFadden, Emily; Luben, Robert; Bingham, Sheila; Wareham, Nicholas; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Kay-Tee Khaw
January 2008
BMC Public Health;2008, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p230
Academic Journal
Background: We investigate the association between occupational social class and self-rated health (SRH) at different ages in men and women. Methods: Cross sectional population study of 22 457 men and women aged 39-79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers in 1993-1997. The relationship between self-rated health and social class was examined using logistic regression, with a poor or moderate rating as the outcome. Results: The prevalence of poor or moderate (lower) self-rated health increased with increasing age in both men and women. There was a strong social class gradient: in manual classes, men and women under 50 years of age had a prevalence of lower self-rated health similar to that seen in men and women in non-manual social classes over 70 years old. Even after adjustment for age, educational status, and lifestyle factors (body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity and alcohol consumption) there was still strong evidence of a social gradient in self-rated health, with unskilled men and women approximately twice as likely to report lower self-rated health as professionals (ORmen = 2.44 (95%CI 1.69, 3.50); ORwomen = 1.97 (95%CI 1.45, 2.68). Conclusion: There was a strong gradient of decreased SRH with age in both men and women. We found a strong cross-sectional association between SRH and social class, which was independent of education and major health related behaviors. The social class differential in SRH was similar with age. Prospective studies to confirm this association should explore social and emotional as well as physical pathways to inequalities in self reported health.


Related Articles

  • Periodontal Health Status of Different Socio-economic Groups in Out-Patient Department of TMDC & RC, Moradabad, India. KADTANE, SAFALYA S.; BHASKAR, D. J.; AGALI, CHANDAN; PUNIA, HIMANSHU; GUPTA, VIPUL; BATRA, MANU; SINGH, VIKAS; BUMB, SWAPNIL S. // Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research;Jul2014, Vol. 8 Issue 7, p61 

    Aims & Objective: To assess the oral health awareness and periodontal health status of different socio-economic groups in out-patient department of the Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre (TMDC&RC), Moradabad, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was...

  • AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO USE IN AN URBAN SLUM OF MEERUT. Katyal, Rashmi; Bansal, Rahul; Goel, Kapil; Sharma, Sachin // National Journal of Community Medicine;Jan-Mar2013, Vol. 4 Issue 1, p30 

    Introduction: Alcohol consumption and problems related to alcohol vary widely around the world, but the burden of disease and death remains significant in most countries. Though there are studies indicating co-occurrence of alcohol use with tobacco, not much work is done on association of...

  • Influence of Socioeconomic Status in the Age at the of Menarche and Duration of Menstrual Bleeding. Elshiekh, Mohammed; Ali Mohammed, Ammar Mohammed // Materia Socio Medica;2011, Vol. 23 Issue 4, p195 

    Purpose: The study of the relationship ,between the age at menarche and socioeconomic status in a rural area in Sudan. Work method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Altadamon and Eldubha areas in the northern state of Sudan during year 2006. It included 182 girls of age...

  • Does social support mediate or moderate socioeconomic differences in self-rated health among adolescents? Salonna, Ferdinand; Geckova, Andrea; Zezula, Ivan; Sleskova, Maria; Groothoff, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen; Dijk, Jitse // International Journal of Public Health;Jun2012, Vol. 57 Issue 3, p609 

    Objective: Social support is assumed to be a protective social determinant of health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether social support from the father, mother and friends mediates or moderates the association between socioeconomic position and self-rated health among...

  • Association of Socioeconomic Status with Iodine Supply and Thyroid Disorders in Northeast Germany. Völzke, Henry; Craesmeyer, Clara; Nauck, Matthias; Below, Harald; Kramer, Axel; John, Ulrich; Baumeister, Sebastian; Ittermann, Till // Thyroid;Mar2013, Vol. 23 Issue 3, p346 

    Objectives: Studies on the potential association of socioeconomic status with iodine supply and the risk for thyroid disorders from developed countries are sparse. Socioeconomic status, however, may particularly impact the efficiency of iodine prophylaxis programs, which are based on the...

  • Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Kogi, Nigeria. MOFOLORUNSHO, Kehinde Charles; NWANKWO, Emmanuel Onwubiko; MOFOLORUNSHO, Taiye Babatunde // Nature & Science;Aug2013, Vol. 11 Issue 8, p33 

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa and have contributed to lowering the life expectancy among those infected. Several factors have been attributed to causing the infection and its prevalence as...

  • Teacher Judgment of Reading Achievement: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Perspective. Valdez, Alfred // Journal of Education & Learning;Dec2013, Vol. 2 Issue 4, p186 

    Analyses were conducted, using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (ECLS-K) database, to compare teachers' judgment of reading skill with direct measures of reading performance for kindergarten, first grade, and third grade students. Teacher judgments of kindergarten...

  • PRENATAL DOG-KEEPING PRACTICES VARY BY RACE: SPECULATIONS ON IMPLICATIONS FOR DISPARITIES IN CHILDHOOD HEALTH AND DISEASE. Ezell, Jerel M.; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Havstad, Suzanne; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Wegienka, Ganesa; Jones, Kyra; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole // Ethnicity & Disease;Winter2014, Vol. 24 Issue 1, p104 

    Objective: There is consistent evidence demonstrating that pet-keeping, particularly of dogs, is beneficial to human health. We explored relationships between maternal race and pre-natal dog-keeping, accounting for measures of socioeconomic status that could affect the choice of owning a pet, in...

  • Point of sale tobacco displays and smoking among 14–15 year olds in New Zealand: a cross-sectional study. J Paynter // Tobacco Control;Aug2009, Vol. 18 Issue 4, p268 

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between exposure to tobacco displays at the point of sale and teenage smoking and susceptibility to the uptake of smoking. DESIGN: The sample comprised a national cross-section of 14–15 year olds with two measures of exposure to tobacco displays at...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics