Risk factors for bone mineral density at the calcaneus in 40-59 year-old male workers: a cross-sectional study in Korea

Hyun-Ju Seo; Soo-Geun Kim; Chong-Soon Kim
January 2008
BMC Public Health;2008, Vol. 8, p253
Academic Journal
Background: Few epidemiologic studies have attempted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for osteopenia and osteoporosis in middle-aged Asian men. We performed this study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of osteopenia and osteoporosis in this population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March to July, 2004. The subjects were 2,073 males aged from 40 to 59 years in the KHNP (Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power) workplace-based cohort. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by peripheral, dual-energy, X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the calcaneus. Anthropometric and lifestyle factors were investigated using a standard, self-reported questionnaire. Results: BMD was 0.60 ± 0.09 g/cm² (mean ± standard deviation) and was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.18, P < 0.001), but positively correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; r = 0.15, P < 0.001), body fat (r = 0.10, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.35, P < 0.001), height (r = 0.26, P < 0.001), and weight (r = 0.43, P < 0.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, the independent determinants associated with BMD were increasing age (coefficient = -0.002, P < 0.001), physical activity (⩽ 2/week vs. ⩾ 3/week; coefficient = 0.017, P < 0.001), WHR (coefficient = -0.796, P < 0.001), body mass index (BMI; coefficient = 0.023, P < 0.001) and smoking status (never vs. ever; coefficient = -0.018, P < 0.001). Conclusion: We suggest that BMD of the calcaneus is correlated negatively with exposure to smoke and increased WHR, but positively with regular exercise and increased BMI.


Related Articles

  • Established and Recently Identified Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People: The Influence of Physical Activity and Physical Fitness. Thomas, Non Eleri; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce // Sports Medicine;2003, Vol. 33 Issue 9, p633 

    Epidemiological studies have identified several risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), many of which are present in young people. One such risk factor is hypertension. In adults, exercise is thought to have a positive effect on blood pressure levels; however, findings are inconclusive...

  • The effectiveness of health interventions in cardiovascular risk reduction among emergency service personnel. Wolkow, Alexander; Netto, Kevin; Aisbett, Brad // International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health;Apr2013, Vol. 86 Issue 3, p245 

    Purpose: The physical demands and hazards associated with emergency service work place particular stress on responders' cardiovascular systems. Indeed, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant problem for emergency service personnel. Although it may be difficult to alter the cardiovascular...

  • Risk of heart disease double in unfit men.  // Occupational Health;Oct2010, Vol. 62 Issue 10, p7 

    The article focuses on research published in the journal "Heart" which reveals that unfit men who work long hours double their risk of dying from heart disease.

  • Prevalence and Cardiovascular Disease Correlates of Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adolescents and Adults. Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Gulati, Martha; Greenland, Philip // JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association;12/21/2005, Vol. 294 Issue 23, p2981 

    Context Population surveys indicate that physical activity levels are low in the United States. One consequence of inactivity, low cardiorespiratory fitness, is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality, but the prevalence of cardiorespiratory fitness...

  • Differences in persistence among different weekly oral bisphosphonate medications. Sheehy, O.; Kindundu, C. M.; Barbeau, M.; LeLorier, J. // Osteoporosis International;Aug2009, Vol. 20 Issue 8, p1369 

    We evaluated the differences in persistence with weekly oral bisphosphonate therapy according to the initial drug. Persistence to weekly oral preparations remains suboptimal, particularly in patients who receive generic alendronate. Alternative solutions are needed to improve the real life...

  • Targeted exercises against hip fragility. Nikander, R.; Kannus, P.; Dastidar, P.; Hannula, M.; Harrison, L.; Cervinka, T.; Narra, N. G.; Aktour, R.; Arola, T.; Eskola, H.; Soimakallio, S.; Heinonen, A.; Hyttinen, J.; Sievänen, H. // Osteoporosis International;Aug2009, Vol. 20 Issue 8, p1321 

    Compared to high-impact exercises, moderate-magnitude impacts from odd-loading directions have similar ability to thicken vulnerable cortical regions of the femoral neck. Since odd-impact exercises are mechanically less demanding to the body, this type of exercise can provide a reasonable basis...

  • Poor Fitness in Young Adults Associated With Later Cardiovascular Problems.  // FDA Consumer;Jan/Feb2004, Vol. 38 Issue 1, p7 

    Focuses on a study, which found that poor fitness in young adults is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Risk factors of CVD; Results of a clinical trial conducted for the study; Causes of metabolic syndrome.

  • A Pilot Intervention to Increase Calcium Intake in Female Collegiate Athletes. Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Klesges, Robert C.; Vukadinovich, Christopher M. // International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism;Feb2004, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p18 

    Calcium intake in adolescent and young adult female athletes often is inadequate to optimize peak bone mass, an important determinant of osteoporosis risk. The purpose of this study was to determine if calcium supplementation in eumenorrheic female collegiate athletes increases intake to...

  • Annotation: Confounding in Epidemiologic Research. Buring, Julie E.; I-Min Lee // American Journal of Public Health;Feb1995, Vol. 85 Issue 2, p164 

    This article focuses on the significance of confounding when interpreting the results from an epidemiologic study. Based on the data from the 1990 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, epidemiologic factor should consider controlling for the other. The presence of a statistical association...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics