Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) study: an integrative population-based case-control study of lung cancer

Landi, Maria Teresa; Consonni, Dario; Rotunno, Melissa; Bergen, Andrew W; Goldstein, Alisa M; Lubin, Jay H; Goldin, Lynn; Alavanja, Michael; Morgan, Glen; Subar, Amy F; Linnoila, Ilona; Previdi, Fabrizio; Corno, Massimo; Rubagotti, Maurizia; Marinelli, Barbara; Albetti, Benedetta; Colombi, Antonio; Tucker, Margaret; Wacholder, Sholom; Pesatori, Angela C
January 2008
BMC Public Health;2008, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p203
Academic Journal
Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoking is its primary cause, and yet the precise molecular alterations induced by smoking in lung tissue that lead to lung cancer and impact survival have remained obscure. A new framework of research is needed to address the challenges offered by this complex disease. Methods/Design: We designed a large population-based case-control study that combines a traditional molecular epidemiology design with a more integrative approach to investigate the dynamic process that begins with smoking initiation, proceeds through dependency/smoking persistence, continues with lung cancer development and ends with progression to disseminated disease or response to therapy and survival. The study allows the integration of data from multiple sources in the same subjects (risk factors, germline variation, genomic alterations in tumors, and clinical endpoints) to tackle the disease etiology from different angles. Before beginning the study, we conducted a phone survey and pilot investigations to identify the best approach to ensure an acceptable participation in the study from cases and controls. Between 2002 and 2005, we enrolled 2101 incident primary lung cancer cases and 2120 population controls, with 86.6% and 72.4% participation rate, respectively, from a catchment area including 216 municipalities in the Lombardy region of Italy. Lung cancer cases were enrolled in 13 hospitals and population controls were randomly sampled from the area to match the cases by age, gender and residence. Detailed epidemiological information and biospecimens were collected from each participant, and clinical data and tissue specimens from the cases. Collection of follow-up data on treatment and survival is ongoing. Discussion: EAGLE is a new population-based case-control study that explores the full spectrum of lung cancer etiology, from smoking addiction to lung cancer outcome, through examination of epidemiological, molecular, and clinical data. We have provided a detailed description of the study design, field activities, management, and opportunities for research following this integrative approach, which allows a sharper and more comprehensive vision of the complex nature of this disease. The study is poised to accelerate the emergence of new preventive and therapeutic strategies with potentially enormous impact on public health.


Related Articles

  • Confounder.  // Encyclopedic Reference of Cancer;2001, p220 

    A definition of the term "confounder" is presented. It refers to an independent factor for cancer risk. Confounders must be excluded to identify a causal relationship between exposure to any agent and disease. A typical confounder in epidemiological studies addressing risk factors and lung...

  • Targeted Therapies in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Review. ALKIS, Necati; ARPACI, Erkan; ASLAN, �lk� YAL�INTAS // Akciger Arsivi/Archives of Lung;2010, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p20 

    Lung cancer is a crucial problem in Turkey and worldwide. The primary risk factor for lung cancer is smoking. Reduction of lung cancer mortality will require effective puplich health policies to prevent initiation of smoking. Oncologists should encourage smoking cessation, especially in- patient...

  • Deadly Radon in Montana? Puskin, Jerome S. // Dose-Response;2011, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p442 

    No abstract available.

  • PM2.5 Pollution and Risk for Lung Cancer: A Rising Issue in China. Hu, David; Juyuan Jiang // Journal of Environmental Protection;Jun2014, Vol. 5 Issue 8, p731 

    This study is focused on the linkage between lung cancer incidence rates and PM2.5 pollution. Researches conducted by leading research organizations in U.S. and Europe were reviewed and analyzed, and strong evidence exists that elevated fine particulate air pollution exposures are associated...

  • 15q12 Variants, Sputum Gene Promoter Hypermethylation, and Lung Cancer Risk: A GWAS in Smokers. Shuguang Leng; Yushi Liu; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Thomas, Cynthia L.; Younghun Han; Picchi, Maria A.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Willink, Randall P.; Gaither Davis, Autumn L.; Kieu C. Do; Tomoko Nukui; Xiequn Zhang; Burki, Elizabeth A.; Van Den Berg, David; Romkes, Marjorie; Gauderman, W. James; Crowell, Richard E.; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Stidley, Christine A.; Amos, Christopher I. // JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute;5/13/2015, Vol. 107 Issue 5, p1 

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Detection of promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in exfoliated cells from the lung provides an assessment of field cancerization that in turn predicts lung cancer. The identification of genetic...

  • A Case-control Study on Non-smoking Primary Lung Cancers in Sichuan, China. Tingting Jiang; Huan Song; Xiaying Peng; Libo Yan; Min Yu; Yu Liu; Haoshu Liu; Feifei Liu; You Lu // Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer;May2010, Vol. 13 Issue 5, p511 

    Background and objective The incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers is increasing in recent years. The aim of this investigation is to explore main risk factors of non-smoking primary lung cancers in Sichuan province in orde to provide more accurate data for clinical. Methods One hundred and...

  • LUNG CANCER AND THE SEXES. Gorman, Christine // Time; 

    This article presents research concerning the link between gender and the risk for developing lung cancer. Women were found to be more likely to develop lung cancer than men, but were found to die from the disease at a much lower rate. These findings are linked to patients of both sexes who are...

  • Active and passive smoking in relation to lung cancer incidence in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study prospective cohort†. Wang, A.; Kubo, J.; Luo, J.; Desai, M.; Hedlin, H.; Henderson, M.; Chlebowski, R.; Tindle, H.; Chen, C.; Gomez, S.; Manson, J. E.; Schwartz, A. G.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Cote, M.; Patel, M. I.; Stefanick, M. L.; Wakelee, H. A. // Annals of Oncology;Jan2015, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p221 

    This is the first prospective cohort study to examine both active and passive smoking in relation to lung cancer incidence in US women. Active smoking was strongly linked to lung cancer, and quitting smoking decreased lung cancer risk. We found no significant relationship between overall passive...

  • Smoking and cancer link in foundry workers.  // Occupational Hazards;Feb95, Vol. 57 Issue 2, p29 

    Reports on smoking as the most common cause of lung cancer among foundry workers. Publication of the study in the December 1994 issue of the `Journal of Occupational Medicine'; Predictors in cancer mortality; Association between length of employment and lung cancer deaths.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics