Hollow tin/chromium whiskers

Jing Cheng; Vianco, Paul T.; Li, James C. M.
May 2010
Applied Physics Letters;5/3/2010, Vol. 96 Issue 18, p184102
Academic Journal
Tin whiskers have been an engineering challenge for over five decades. The mechanism has not been agreed upon thus far. This experiment aimed to identify a mechanism by applying compressive stresses to a tin film evaporated on silicon substrate with an adhesion layer of chromium in between. A phenomenon was observed in which hollow whiskers grew inside depleted areas. Using focused ion beam, the hollow whiskers were found to contain both tin and chromium. At the bottom of the depleted areas, thin tin/tin oxide film remained over the chromium layer. It indicates that tin transport occurred along the interface between tin and chromium layers.


Related Articles

  • Will 'Tin Whiskers' Grow When You Get The Lead Out? Levine, Bernard // Electronic News;3/25/2002, Vol. 48 Issue 13, p2 

    Provides information on the study 'Tin Whiskers: Attributes and Mitigation,' presented by several industry researchers at the Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium in New Orleans, Louisiana. Advantages of pure tin, tin-lead and other tin alloy electroplating processes; Problem to an...

  • Room temperature operational single electron transistor fabricated by focused ion beam deposition. Karre, P. Santosh Kumar; Bergstrom, Paul L.; Mallick, Govind; Karna, Shashi P. // Journal of Applied Physics;7/15/2007, Vol. 102 Issue 2, p024316 

    We present the fabrication and room temperature operation of single electron transistors using 8 nm tungsten islands deposited by focused ion beam deposition technique. The tunnel junctions are fabricated using oxidation of tungsten in peracetic acid. Clear Coulomb oscillations, showing charging...

  • TIN WHISKER Observations. OGDEN, ROBERT R.; CHAMPAIGN, ROBERT F. // Circuits Assembly;Nov2009, Vol. 20 Issue 11, p26 

    The article examines the problem of tin whisker growth in pure tin (Sn) plating. It states that tin whiskers emanating from tin-plated surfaces can cause transient or damaging electrical short circuits and interference in the operation of mechanical assemblies. The article also cites...

  • Relieving Sn Whisker Growth by Oxidation of CU Leadframe.  // Welding Journal;Oct2008, Vol. 87 Issue 10, p59 

    The article discusses a research from the National Chiao Tung University and Integrated Service Technology Co. in Taiwan that examines tin whisker growth as a reliability issue for application of lead-free solders in electronics. Results reveal that oxidation of the tin finish was the driving...

  • Get Used To Tin Whiskers. Sperling, Ed // Electronic News;5/8/2006, Vol. 52 Issue 19, p66 

    Reports on a list of recommendations for testing and mitigation of tin whiskers, developed by the International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI). The group says the body of information is still not perfect for long-life products, and whiskers will still form under certain conditions....

  • Effects of oxygen partial pressure during deposition on the properties of ion-beam-sputtered indium-tin oxide thin films. Bregman, J.; Shapira, Yoram; Aharoni, H. // Journal of Applied Physics;4/15/1990, Vol. 67 Issue 8, p3750 

    Presents a study which investigated ion-beam-sputtered indium-tin oxide as a function of the oxygen pressure during deposition. Experimental details; Results; Discussion.

  • Structural study of tin and carbon coimplanted silicon. Mei, P.; Schmidt, M. T.; Yang, E. S.; Wilkens, B. J. // Journal of Applied Physics;6/15/1991, Vol. 69 Issue 12, p8417 

    Presents information on a study which investigated the possibility of forming SiSnC alloys by ion-beam synthesis. Structure of tin and carbon coimplanted silicon; Effect of carbon implantation on the tin segregation; Crystallinity, chemical composition and depth profiles of the alloy system.

  • Room-temperature preparation of biaxially textured indium tin oxide thin films with ion-beam-assisted deposition. Thiele, Karola; Sievers, Sibylle; Jooss, Christian; Hoffmann, Jorg; Freyhardt, Herbert C. // Journal of Materials Research;Feb2003, Vol. 18 Issue 2, p442 

    Focuses on a study which described room-temperature preparation of biaxially textured indium tin oxide thin films with ion-beam-assisted deposition. Experimental methods; Results and discussion; Conclusions.

  • Oxidation-Induced Whisker Growth on the Surface of Sn-6.6(La, Ce) Alloy. Tung-Han Chuang; Hsiu-Jen Lin; Chih-Chien Chi // Journal of Electronic Materials;Dec2007, Vol. 36 Issue 12, p1697 

    During solidification of rare-earth (RE)-containing Sn-6.6(La, Ce) alloys, (La0.93Ce0.07)Sn3 intermetallic clusters form in the near [beta]-Sn matrix. These (La0.93Ce0.07)Sn3 intermetallics oxidize predominately after air storage at room temperature for short time periods. Accompanying the...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics