Using the Concrete--Representational--Abstract Sequence to Teach Subtraction With Regrouping to Students at Risk for Failure

Flores, Margaret M.
May 2010
Remedial & Special Education;May/Jun2010, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p195
Academic Journal
This study investigated the effects of the concrete-representational--abstract (CRA) instructional sequence on the subtraction performance of students identified as at-risk for mathematics failure. Although the CRA sequence has been demonstrated as effective for teaching a variety of mathematical skills and processes its effects when used to teach subtraction with regrouping have not been studied. This study examined the effects of CRA instruction on elementary students' fluency in computing subtraction problems with regrouping in the tens place as well as regrouping in both the tens and hundreds places. The study also investigated the effects of CRA instruction on students' maintenance of regrouping skills. A multiple probe across students with embedded changing behaviors design was employed. A functional relation between CRA instruction and subtraction with regrouping was demonstrated across all students. The results and their implications are discussed further.


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