HIV prevention for South African youth: which interventions work? A systematic review of current evidence

Harrison, Abigail; Newell, Marie-Louise; Imrie, John; Hoddinott, Graeme
January 2010
BMC Public Health;2010, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p102
Academic Journal
Background: Injection drug use is an important public health problem. Epidemiological understanding of this problem is incomplete as longitudinal studies in the general population are difficult to undertake. In particular little is known about early life risk factors for later drug injection or about the life course of injection once established including the influence of medical and social interventions. Methods: Individuals thought to be drug injectors were identified through a single primary medical care facility in Edinburgh between 1980 and 2006 and flagged with the General Registry Office. From October 2005 - October 2007, these cases were traced and invited to undergo interview assessment covering early life experience, substance use, health and social histories. Age and sex matched controls for confirmed cases (alive and dead) were later recruited through the same health facility. Controls for living cases completed the same structured interview schedule. Data were also collected on cases and controls through linkage to routine primary care records, death registrations, hospital contact statistics and police and prison records. All interviews were conducted with the knowledge and permission of the current GP. Results: The initial cohort size was 814. At start of follow up 227 had died. Of the remaining 587: 20 had no contact details and 5 had embarked from the UK; 40 declined participation; 38 did not respond to invitations; 14 were excluded by their GP on health or social grounds and 22 had their contact details withheld by administrative authorities. 448 were interviewed of whom 16 denied injection and were excluded. Of 191 dead cases with medical records 4 were excluded as their records contained no evidence of injection. 5 interviewed cases died before follow up was concluded though these individuals were counted as "live" cases. 1 control per case (dead and alive) was recruited. Linkage to Scottish Morbidity Records data (available from 1981 onwards) on general acute inpatient and day cases, mental health inpatient and day cases and cancer was provided by Information Services, NHS Scotland, for all cases interviewed and all dead cases. The Scottish Prison Service provided records for 198 (46%) of cases interviewed, 48 cases not interviewed and 34 (18%) of dead cases. For a sub-sample of 100 interviewees a search of the Lothian and Borders police database was made for official criminal records and 94 had criminal records. Data linkage for controls is ongoing. Conclusions: Injecting drug users recruited from a community setting can be successfully followed-up through interviews and record linkage. Information from injecting cases is being analysed in terms of injecting patterns and possible influences on these. Comparisons between cases and controls will allow identification of possibly modifiable early life risk factors for drug injection and will also clarify the burden of disease associated with injection and the influence on this of different health and social interventions.


Related Articles

  • Measuring organizational and individual factors thought to influence the success of quality improvement in primary care: a systematic review of instruments. Brennan, Sue E.; Bosch, Marije; Buchan, Heather; Green, Sally E. // Implementation Science;2012, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p1 

    Background: Continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods are widely used in healthcare; however, the effectiveness of the methods is variable, and evidence about the extent to which contextual and other factors modify effects is limited. Investigating the relationship between these factors and...

  • Prevention of overweight and obesity in adult populations: a systematic review. Peirson, Leslea; Douketis, James; Ciliska, Donna; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Raina, Parminder // CMAJ Open;2014, Vol. 2 Issue 4, pE268 

    Background: The prevalence of normal-weight adults is decreasing, and the proportion in excessive weight categories (body mass index ≥ 25) is increasing. In this review, we sought to identify interventions to prevent weight gain in normal-weight adults. Methods: We searched multiple...

  • Prevalence, Determinants and Patterns of Multimorbidity in Primary Care: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies. Violan, Concepció; Foguet-Boreu, Quintí; Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Salisbury, Chris; Blom, Jeanet; Freitag, Michael; Glynn, Liam; Muth, Christiane; Valderas, Jose M. // PLoS ONE;Jul2014, Vol. 9 Issue 7, p1 

    Introduction: Multimorbidity is a major concern in primary care. Nevertheless, evidence of prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity, and their determinants, are scarce. The aim of this study is to systematically review studies of the prevalence, patterns and determinants of multimorbidity in...

  • String of PEARLS.  // Journal of Primary Health Care;Dec2012, Vol. 4 Issue 4, p342 

    The article offers information on the publication of articles based on summaries of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for primary care practitioners.

  • Epidemiology of molluscum contagiosum in children: a systematic review. Olsen, Jonathan R; Gallacher, John; Piguet, Vincent; Francis, Nick A // Family Practice;Apr2014, Vol. 31 Issue 2, p130 

    Background. Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common skin condition that primarily affects children, a common reason for presenting in primary care and is commonly seen in children presenting with other conditions in primary and secondary care. It is usually asymptomatic but can present with pain,...

  • Family Practice is seeking excellent manuscript submissions. Neale, Anne Victoria; Whelan, Louise // Family Practice;Jun2013, Vol. 30 Issue 3, p245 

    No abstract available.

  • Guías de prácticas clínicas para la atención y el manejo de los problemas médicos de las mujeres con epilepsia. Andrade Machado, René; Goicoechea Astencio, Adriana; Luis Rodríguez García, Pedro; Fernández Abreu, Zadayaky; Santos Santos, Aisel; Garnier Ávila, Tania; Miguel Riol Lozano, Juan; García Espinosa, Arlety; de la Torre Santos, María Elena // Revista Cubana de Neurología y Neurocirugía;2013, Vol. 3 Issue 2, p172 

    Introduction: Cuba has a well-developed and high quality primary care system. Taking it into consideration is very important to develop a standardized program and an evidence-base guideline to improve (the health) medical care in women with Epilepsy (WWE). Objective: To carry out a systematic...

  • Not waving but drowning† … in systematic reviews. Ebrahim, Shah // International Journal of Epidemiology;Dec2010, Vol. 39 Issue 6, p1407 

    No abstract available.

  • Systematiske oversikter og epidemiologisk forskning. Norderhaug, Inger Natvig // Norsk Epidemiologi;2013, Vol. 23 Issue 2, p125 

    In health care, good knowledge is key to sound decision making. Good management of knowledge can be achieved through systematic reviews for various questions including the effects of health care interventions, causes of disease, how to best diagnose diseases, prognosis, as well as people's...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics