Disinfection of swimming pools with chlorine and derivatives: formation of organochlorinated and organobrominated compounds and exposure of pool personnel and swimmers

Aprea, Maria-Cristina; Banchi, Bruno; Lunghini, Liana; Pagliantini, Massimo; Peruzzi, Antonio; Sciarra, Gianfranco
February 2010
Natural Science;Feb2010, Vol. 2 Issue 2, p68
Academic Journal
Chlorination of pool water leads to the formation of many by-products, chloroform usually being the most abundant. The paper reports the results of a study evaluating exposure of bathers and pool employees to trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform) in four indoor swimming pools with chlorinated water. Chloroform concentrations in environmental air samples when the pool was in use (about 9 h), in the range 1-182 μg/m³, were greater near the pool than in the change rooms, passageways and offices. Chloroform concentrations in personal air samples of pool employees were in the range 18-138 μg/m³. Urinary concentrations of chloroform averaged (geometric means) 0.123 and 0.165 μg/l and 0.404 and 0.342 μg/l prior and at the end of exposure during in water and out of water activities, respectively. The significant increase in urinary excretion of chloroform confirms that the source of the contaminant was pool water. Absorption of chloroform, estimated from airborne and water concentrations, was significantly correlated with delta chloroform (after/before exposure) and urinary concentrations of chloroform at the end of exposure. As chloroform is a toxic and possibly carcinogenic substance, these observations pose a problem principally for the general population of pool users.


Related Articles

  • Development of Predictive Models for the Formation of Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids during Chlorination of Bromide-Rich Water. Lekkas, Themistokles D.; Nikolaou, Anastasia D. // Water Quality Research Journal of Canada;2004, Vol. 39 Issue 2, p149 

    The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of drinking water is an issue which has drawn significant scientific attention over the last few years, due to the adverse effects of these compounds on human health. The complicated mechanisms of the formation of DBPs are...

  • Health Effects of Trihalomethanes as Chlorinated Disinfection by Products: A Review Article. Mohamadshafiee, M. R.; Taghavi, L. // World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology;2012, Issue 68, p2090 

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) were among the first disinfection byproducts to be discovered in chlorinated water. The substances form during a reaction between chlorine and organic matter in the water. Trihalomethanes are suspected to have negative effects on birth such as, low birth weight,...

  • Water residence time in a distribution system and its impact on disinfectant residuals and trihalomethanes. Simard, Andréanne; Pelletier, Geneviève; Rodriguez, Manuel // Journal of Water Supply: Research & Technology-AQUA;Sep2011, Vol. 60 Issue 6, p375 

    The most critical water quality conditions are generally found at a water distribution network's extremities, given their high residence times. As chlorine injected at the water treatment plant (WTP) or at rechlorination sites has more time to react, residual chlorine concentrations at the...

  • An experimental study for chlorine residual and trihalomethane formation with rechlorination. Lee, J.; Lee, D.; Sohn, J. // Water Science & Technology;2007, Vol. 55 Issue 1/2, p307 

    Maintenance of adequate chlorine residuals and control of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) throughout water distribution systems is currently an important issue. In particular, rechlorination can be a powerful tool in controlling adequate chlorine residual in a large distribution system. The...

  • Disinfection by-products in US drinking waters: past, present and future. Singer, P.C. // Water Science & Technology: Water Supply;2004, Vol. 4 Issue 1, p151 

    Disinfection by-products have been regulated in finished drinking waters in the United States since 1979. The original regulations dealt only with trihalomethanes, but more recent rules also address haloacetic acids. Compliance with these regulations has traditionally been based on a running...

  • Chlorinated Solvents and Disinfection By-product Analysis Using Agilent J&W HP-1ms Ultra Inert and DB-1301 Capillary GC Columns. Smith, Doris; Lynam, Ken // LC-GC North America;Jun2009 Application Notebook, Vol. 27, p26 

    The article presents the application of an Agilent J&W HP-1ms Ultra Inert capillary GC column for the analysis of chlorinated solvents, disinfection by-products, and trihalomethanes. It notes that Agilent J&W HP-1ms Ultra Inert capillary GC column is an effective tool in evaluating the...

  • OPERATION AND MONITORING OF OFFICE STERILIZERS. Palenik, Charles J. // Dental Assistant;Nov/Dec2007, Vol. 76 Issue 6, p28 

    The article focuses on the author's view on the failure of the operation of sterilization. The author states that sterilization failure involves factors such as mechanical problem and operator error. He stresses that mechanical problems include improper temperature, pressure, and deficient...

  • UNIVERSAL MODULAR DEVICE FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL SYNTESIS OF THE DISINFICANT. Trišović, Tomislav; Jugović, Branimir; Gvozdenović, Milica; Trišović, Nataša // Journal of Trends in the Development of Machinery & Associated T;2012, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p187 

    For the water disinfections practically four different technologies (chlorine, ozone, hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide) are used nowadays in the world. The oldest and the most exploited one, so called conventional, is the disinfections with gaseous or liquid chlorine. The biggest producers of the...

  • Taking a shower. Cooper, Harriet // Alive: Canada's Natural Health & Wellness Magazine;Feb2006, Issue 280, p98 

    The article discusses the harmful effects of chlorine. Recent studies found that when chlorinated water comes into contact with organic matter it produces byproducts called trihalomethanes. These gaseous compounds were proven harmful to skin. Thus people are advised not to take long showers to...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics