Temperature-dependent La- and Al-induced dipole behavior monitored by femtosecond pump/probe photoelectron spectroscopy

Arimura, Hiroaki; Haight, Richard; Brown, Stephen L.; Kellock, Andrew; Callegari, Alessandro; Copel, Matthew; Watanabe, Heiji; Narayanan, Vijay; Ando, Takashi
March 2010
Applied Physics Letters;3/29/2010, Vol. 96 Issue 13, p132902
Academic Journal
The impact of thermal budget on La- and Al-induced dipoles is systematically investigated by femtosecond pump/probe photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that the La-induced dipole requires annealing at 300 °C for complete activation, whereas the Al-induced dipole is activated at the lower temperature but requires annealing at 300 °C to eliminate a counteracting sheet charge. When La and Al atoms coexist on a SiO2 surface, the La-induced dipole becomes dominative after a silicate-forming reaction at the temperature above 600 °C. This phenomenon is attributed to the different natures of the La- and Al-induced dipoles, i.e., long-range and short-range.


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