Risk and Protective Factors Associated With Speech and Language Impairment in a Nationally Representative Sample of 4- to 5-Year-Old Children

Harrison, Linda J.; McLeod, Sharynne
April 2010
Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research;Apr2010, Vol. 53 Issue 2, p508
Academic Journal
Purpose: To determine risk and protective factors for speech and language impairment in early childhood. Method: Data are presented for a nationally representative sample of 4,983 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (described in McLeod & Harrison, 2009). Thirty-one child, parent, family, and community factors previously reported as being predictors of speech and language impairment were tested as predictors of (a) parent-rated expressive speech/language concern and (b) receptive language concern, (c) use of speech-language pathology services, and (d) low receptive vocabulary. Results: Bivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed 29 of the identified factors. However, when tested concurrently with other predictors in multivariate analyses, only 19 remained significant: 9 for 2-4 outcomes and 10 for 1 outcome. Consistent risk factors were being male, having ongoing hearing problems, and having a more reactive temperament. Protective factors were having a more persistent and sociable temperament and higher levels of maternal well-being. Results differed by outcome for having an older sibling, parents speaking a language other than English, and parental support for children's learning at home. Conclusion: Identification of children requiring speech and language assessment requires consideration of the context of family life as well as biological and psychosocial factors intrinsic to the child.


Related Articles

  • Leicester unveils speech campaign. Watson, Ross // Children & Young People Now (Haymarket Business Publications Ltd;9/24/2008, p8 

    The article reports on the speech campaign unveiled by Leicester City Council in England. The campaign, called Talk Matters, tackles the increasing rate of children under five-year-old with language difficult. The campaign, which was said to be a multi agency and in development for the past two...

  • Promoting the communication skills of primary school children excluded from school or at risk of exclusion: An intervention study. Law, James; Sivyer, Sonia // Child Language Teaching & Therapy;Jan2003, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p1 

    Previous research has focused on the close association between speech and language difficulties and emotional and behavioural difficulties. However, little attempt has so far been made to examine this relationship in children with emotional or behavioural difficulties who are at risk of...

  • Parent based language intervention for 2-year-old children with specific expressive language delay: a randomised controlled trial. A Buschmann // Archives of Disease in Childhood;Feb2009, Vol. 94 Issue 2, p110 

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a short, highly structured parent based language intervention group programme for 2-year-old children with specific expressive language delay (SELD, without deficits in receptive language). METHODS: 61...

  • Preschool Word Learning During Joint Book Reading: Effect of Adult Questions and Comments. Ard, Lisa M.; Beverly, Brenda L. // Communication Disorders Quarterly;Fall2004, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p17 

    Adults naturally comment and pose questions during joint book reading (JBR), a recognized context for vocabulary acquisition. An original story containing 10 nonsense words mapped to novel referents was read to 40 typically developing preschoolers. Children who heard scripted questions and...

  • A Comparison of Naturalistic and Analog Treatment Effects in Children with Expressive Language Disorder and Poor Preintervention Imitation Skills. Gillum, Heather; Camarata, Stephen; Nelson, Keith E.; Camarata, Mary N. // Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions;Summer2003, Vol. 5 Issue 3, p171 

    The participants in this study were 4 children diagnosed with Expressive Language Disorder who displayed poor imitation skills, with scores significantly below typical levels on the Sentence Imitation subtest of the Test of Language Development-2: Primary (Newcomer & Hammill, 1988). The purpose...

  • Genes and language impairment.  // Archives of Disease in Childhood -- Education & Practice Edition;Jun2009, Vol. 94 Issue 3, p2 

    The article discusses the genetic aspects of language impairment in children. It observes that although children between 6 and 7 years old are speaking well, about 5% of minority children have unexplained difficulty with aspects of speech and language. It speculates the increased likelihood of...

  • New Scales For the Assessment of Language Development in Young Children. Reynell, Joan; Huntle, R. M. C. // Journal of Learning Disabilities;Dec1971, Vol. 4 Issue 10, p549 

    The Reynell Developmental Language Scales (R.D.L.S.) were developed in response to a clinical need at a center for handicapped children. They are designed for the separate assessment of different aspects of language development over the age range one to five years. The scales are based on the...

  • “But I first… and then he kept picking”: Narrative skill in Mandarin-speaking children with language impairment. Tsai, Wanyu; Chien-ju Chang // Narrative Inquiry;2008, Vol. 18 Issue 2, p349 

    This study investigates the narrative skill of school-aged children with language impairment in Taiwan. Twelve children, 6 children with language impairment (LI) and 6 children with typical language development (TLD), aged from 8;0 to 9;5 participated in this study. They were asked to tell three...

  • Specific Language Impairment in Families: Evidence for Co-Occurrence With Reading Impairments. Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Hirsch, Linda S.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Tallal, Paula // Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research;Jun2003, Vol. 46 Issue 3, p530 

    Two family aggregation studies report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments (LIs) and reading impairments (RIs). Study 1 examined the occurrence (rate) of LI and RI in children with specific language impairment (SLI probands), a matched control group, and all nuclear...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics