Cytotoxic Effect of Zoledronic Acid-Loaded Bone Cement on Giant Cell Tumor, Multiple Myeloma, and Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines

Zwolak, Pawel; Manivel, J. Carlos; Jasinski, Piotr; Kirstein, Mark N.; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z.; Fisher, James; Cheng, Edward Y.
January 2010
Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, American Volume;Jan2010, Vol. 92-A Issue 1, p162
Academic Journal
Background: Local recurrence with subsequent osteolysis is a problem after intralesional curettage of giant cell tumor of bone, rnyeloma, and metastatic carcinoma. The bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (zoledronate) has been shown to reduce osteoclast activity, and its local administration is a potentially attractive therapy, especially for the osteoclast-rich giant cell tumor. The aim of this study was to analyze the elution dynamics of zoledronic acid release from acrylic bone cement and its in vitro antitumor efficacy. Methods: Various concentrations of zoledronic acid were mixed with bone cement and placed in distilled water. The concentration in the water was measured daily for fourteen days. The cytotoxic effects of the dissolved zoledronic acid on cultures of multiple myeloma, giant cell tumor, and renal cell carcinoma cells were tested with use of the MIT assay (tetrazoli urn [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl )-2,5-di phenyltetrazol ium bromide] dye) and analyzed according to the zoledronic acid concentration and the elapsed time. Results: The release of zoledronic acid was greatest during the first twenty-four hours for all concentrations and decreased rapidly during the next forty-eight hours to reach a plateau after four days. The proliferation assay (MIT) showed zoledronic acid to have significant cytotoxicity in cultures of stromal giant cell tumor, multiple myeloma, and renal cell carcinoma cells. In addition, zoledronic acid decreased the number of viable tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. Renal cell carcinoma from bone (RBM1-IT4) and stromal giant cell tumor of bone were more susceptible to zoledronic acid than was multiple myeloma. Conclusions: The method presented in our study is a reproducible technique for evaluating zoledronic acid elution from bone cement and determining its impact on tumor growth. Zoledronic acid is released from bone cement, remains biologically active despite the polymerization of cement, and inhibits the in vitro growth of cell lines from giant cell tumor of bone, myeloma, and renal cell carcinoma. Clinical Relevance: Local delivery of zoledronic acid by packing an osseous defect with zoledronic acid-impregnated cement after tumor curettage may have beneficial effects both through direct antineoplastic activity and by reducing osteolysis, thus improving local control without incurring systemic toxicity.


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