Immunomodulatory effect of cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG)-oligonucleotides in nonasthmatic chronic rhinosinusitis: An explant model

Tan, Lorwai; Rogers, Trisha J.; Hatzirodos, Nick; Baker, Leonie M.; Enghooi Ooi; Wormald, Peter-John
March 2009
American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy;Mar2009, Vol. 23 Issue 2, p123
Academic Journal
Background: The use of cytosine-phosphate-guanosine-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) or immunostimulatory sequences (ISSs) in the treatment of airway diseases is gaining interest. Binding of the CpG-ODN ligand to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) triggers a shift from a Th2- to a Th1-type response in the target tissue. In this study, we explored the potential use of CpG-ODN to dampen the predominantly Th2-driven chronic inflammatory state in our cohort of patients. Methods: An in vitro explant model comprising of sinonasal tissue from patients with asthma (n = 12) and without asthma (n = 11) were stimulated with CpG-ODN or Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) or CpG-ODN in combination with SEB for 48 hours. Ten of the 12 asthma patients had nasal polyps. RNA was extracted for multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and the 2-delta deltaCT method used to determine interleukin (IL)-5, p35 IL-12, interferon (IFN) gamma, and TLR9 expression levels. Results: CpG-ODN significantly reduced IL-5 mRNA expression in patients without asthma (p = 0.0379) but not in the asthma-associated group. SEB alone caused an increase in IL-5 levels that could be dampened when CpG-ODN was added in combination with SEB. Significant differences in mean IL-5 expression levels between the asthmatic and nonasthmatic categories were detected (Welch t-test; **p = 0.0041). Asthmatic and nonasthmatic patients present as two distinct categories as reflected by significant differences in their IL-5 response to CpG-ODN (F = 11.93; ***p = 0.0008), SEB (F = 41.34; *p = 0.0476) and CpG-ODN with SEB (F = 13.2; *p = 0.0114). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the expression levels of IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TLR9. Conclusion: Localized application of CpG-ODN on its own or in combination with SEB may potentially reduce the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-5 in nonasthmatic patients and may be further developed as an immunotherapeutic agent.


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