Low temperature germanium to silicon direct wafer bonding using free radical exposure

Byun, Ki Yeol; Ferain, Isabelle; Fleming, Pete; Morris, Michael; Goorsky, Mark; Colinge, Cindy
March 2010
Applied Physics Letters;3/8/2010, Vol. 96 Issue 10, p102110
Academic Journal
A low temperature germanium (Ge) to silicon (Si) wafer bonding method was demonstrated by in situ radical activation bonding in vacuum. In order to gain further insight into the bonding mechanism, the Ge surface chemistry after either oxygen or nitrogen radical activation was analyzed by means of angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. After low temperature direct bonding of Ge to Si followed by annealing at 200 and 300 °C, advanced imaging techniques were used to characterize the bonded interface.


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