Zartman, I. William
January 1976
Foreign Affairs;Jan1976, Vol. 54 Issue 2, p325
This article focuses on the relationship between Africa and Europe. The European presence has shifted from overt and direct to more subtle forms. While military occupation and sovereign control over African territories have all but been eliminated, political influence, economic preponderance, and cultural conditioning remain. Thus, European-African relations are a matter of continuity and change, but judgments of them vary considerably, according to the importance given to one or the other of these two elements. To some, the successor of colonialism is neocolonialism and dependency, for others, what is taking place is gradual disengagement, and the multilateralization of ties to the developed nations. On the level of protection, Europe was gradually building self-sufficiency through a number of measures, notably its common external tariff wall and behind that, its Common Agricultural Policy. However, African states were also trying to build up their currency earnings through exports, often of the very industrial and agricultural products protected by European policies, while also trying to develop their own efforts at self-sufficiency in competition with the European products which they were supposed to admit duty-free, although all the agreements contained a safeguard clause permitting African tariffs for industrial and development purposes.


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