Calleo, David P.
October 1975
Foreign Affairs;Oct75, Vol. 54 Issue 1, p98
Academic Journal
The paper offers a look at political and economic issues surrounding the European integration. Europe, it appears, has not measured up to American expectations; it appears to lack will, vision and legitimacy. Throughout Europe's postwar history, most American analysts have never understood the character of European integration. In practical terms, national sovereignty can more usefully be compared to the idea of free will for the individual. The political foundation of Europe's confederacy lies, in fact, in the external threat to the self-determination of its states. In external policy, moreover, a confederal structure, if it lacks the unity of a national state, also permits a greater flexibility in approaching other powers and offers a less salient target for retaliation. The oil crisis has shown Europe the costs of dependence on alien power, particularly when that power is no longer able to maintain its sway, and can less and less afford generosity to its clients. American policy in the oil crisis seems unambiguous. In any event, structured economic ties between the Europeans and the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries have grown with impressive speed since the oil crisis. Of the $55 billion of surplus funds in 1974, $37 billion has gone to short-term investment. Europe's success in any significant degree will mean a major external extension of an independent European political-economic influence.


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