Effects of Walnut Consumption on Endothelial Function in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

Ma, Yingying; Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Millet, John; Dutta, Suparna; Doughty, Kim; Treu, Judith A.; Katz, David L.
February 2010
Diabetes Care;Feb2010, Vol. 33 Issue 2, p227
Academic Journal
OBJECTIVE -- To determine the effects of daily walnut consumption on endothelial function, cardiovascular biomarkers, and anthropometric measures in type 2 diabetic individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- This study was a randomized, controlled, single-blind, crossover trial. Twenty-four participants with type 2 diabetes (mean age 58 years; 14 women and 10 men) were randomly assigned to one of the two possible sequence permutations to receive an ad libitum diet enriched with 56 g (366 kcal) walnuts/day and an ad libitum diet without walnuts for 8 weeks. Subjects underwent endothelial function testing (measured as flow-mediated dilatation [FMD]) and assessment of cardiovascular biomarkers before and after each 8-week treatment phase. The primary outcome measure was the change in FMD after 8 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included changes in plasma lipids, A1C, fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and anthropometric measures. RESULTS-- Endothelial function significantly improved after consumption of a walnut-enriched ad libitum diet compared with that after consumption of an ad libitum diet without walnuts (2.2 ± 1.7 vs. 1.2 ± 1.6%; P = 0.04). The walnut-enriched diet increased fasting serum glucose and lowered serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol from baseline (10.0 ± 20.5 mg/dl, P = 0.04; -9.7 ± 14.5 mg/dt, P < 0.01; and -7.7 ± 10 mg/dl, P < 0.01, respectively), although these changes were not significant compared with those for an ad libitum diet without walnuts. There were no significant changes in anthropometric measures, plasma A1C, and insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS-- A walnut-enriched ad libitum diet improves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in type 2 diabetic individuals, suggesting a potential reduction in overall cardiac risk.


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