The Influences of Impact Interface, Muscle Activity, and Knee Angle on Impact Forces and Tibial and Femoral Accelerations Occurring After External Impacts

Potthast, Wolfgang; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Lundberg, Arne; Arndt, Anton
February 2010
Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Feb2010, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p1
Academic Journal
The purpose of this study was to quantify relative contributions of impact interface, muscle activity, and knee angle to the magnitudes of tibial and femoral accelerations occurring after external impacts. Impacts were initiated with a pneumatically driven impacter under the heels of four volunteers. Impact forces were quantified with a force sensor. Segmental accelerations were measured with bone mounted accelerometers. Experimental interventions were hard and soft shock interfaces, different knee angles (0°, 20°, 40° knee flexion), and muscular preactivation (0%, 30%, 60% of maximal voluntary contraction) of gastrocnemii, hamstrings, and quadriceps. Greater knee flexion led to lower impact forces and higher tibial accelerations. Increased muscular activation led to higher forces and lower tibial accelerations. The softer of the two shock interfaces under study reduced both parameters. The effects on accelerations and forces through the activation and knee angle changes were greater than the effect of interface variations. The hardness of the two shock interfaces explained less than 10% of the variance of accelerations and impact forces, whereas knee angle changes explained 25-29%, and preactivation changes explained 35-48% of the variances. It can be concluded that muscle force and knee joint angle have greater effects in comparison with interface hardness on the severity of shocks on the lower leg.


Related Articles

  • A Preliminary Study of Patellar Tendon Torques During Jumping. Elvin, Niell; Elvin, Alex; Scheffer, Cornie; Arnoczky, Steven; Dillon, Edwin; Erasmus, P. J. // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Nov2009, Vol. 25 Issue 4, p360 

    The etiology of patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) has been attributed to a significant increase in patellar tendon torques associated with jumping. While some investigators have suggested that patellar tendon torques are greater during takeoff, little is known about the relative magnitudes...

  • Foot Orthotic Devices Decrease Transverse Plane Motion During Landing From a Forward Vertical Jump in Healthy Females. Jenkins, Walter L.; Williams, Dorsey Shelton; Durland, Alex; Adams, Brandon; O’Brien, Kevin // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Nov2009, Vol. 25 Issue 4, p387 

    The use of foot orthoses has been evaluated during a variety of functional activities. Twelve college-aged active females wore two types of foot orthoses and performed a vertical jump to determine the biomechanical effect of the orthoses on lower extremity transverse plane movement during...

  • Comparing Methods of Quantifying Tibial Acceleration Slope. Duquette, Adriana M.; Andrews, David M. // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;May2010, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p229 

    Considerable variability in tibial acceleration slope (AS) values, and different interpretations of injury risk based on these values, have been reported. Acceleration slope variability may be due in part to variations in the quantification methods used. Therefore, the purpose of this study was...

  • Examining the Role of the Gastrocnemius During the Leg Curl Exercise. Gallucci, Jason G.; Challis, John H. // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Feb2002, Vol. 18 Issue 1, p15 

    This study examined the moment-producing capabilities of the gastrocnemius during isokinetic knee flexion tasks. Nine healthy men were tested using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Each one completed 3 maximum repetitions at 3 angular velocities, 30, 75, and 150°/s, with his ankle braced in...

  • Effect of static stretching of quadriceps and hamstring muscles on knee joint position sense. Larsen, R.; Lund, H.; Christensen, R.; Røgind, H.; Danneskiold-Scimsøe, B.; Bliddal, H. // British Journal of Sports Medicine;Jan2005, Vol. 39 Issue 1, p43 

    Objectives: To evaluate if a stretch regimen consisting of three 30 second stretches would alter joint position sense (JPS). Methods: A blinded, randomised, cross over design with a washout time of 24 hours was used with 20 healthy volunteers. JPS was estimated from the ability to reproduce the...

  • Three-dimensional in vivo motion analysis of normal knees using single-plane fluoroscopy. Tanifuji, Osamu; Sato, Takashi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Mochizuki, Tomoharu; Koga, Yoshio; Yamagiwa, Hiroshi; Omori, Go; Endo, Naoto // Journal of Orthopaedic Science;Nov2011, Vol. 16 Issue 6, p710 

    Background: Analysis of the movement of anatomically defined reference axes at the femoral condyles relative to the tibia is appropriate for evaluating knee kinematics. However, such parameters have been previously employed only in studies utilizing stop-motion techniques. The purpose of this...

  • In vitro characterization of the relationship between the Q-angle and the lateral component of the quadriceps force. Elias, J. J.; Mattessich, S. M.; Kumagai, M.; Mizuno, Y.; Cosgarea, A. J.; Chao, E. Y. // Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers -- Part H;Jan2004, Vol. 218 Issue 1, p63 

    Although the Q-angle is routinely measured, the relationship between the Q-angle and the lateral component of the quadriceps force acting on the patella is unknown. Five cadaver knees were flexed on a knee simulator with a normal Q-angle, and flexed after increasing and decreasing the Q-angle by...

  • Cylindrical Axis, Not Epicondyles, Approximates Perpendicular to Knee Axes. Hancock, Clifton; Winston, Mark; Bach, Joel; Davidson, Bradley; Eckhoff, Donald // Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research;Jul2013, Vol. 471 Issue 7, p2278 

    Background: The transepicondylar axis (TEA) is often used as a surrogate for the flexion-extension axis, ie, the axis around which the tibia moves in space, because of a belief that both axes lie perpendicular to the mechanical axis. However, studies suggest the cylindrical axis (CA), defined as...

  • Implementation of Discrete Element Analysis for Subject-Specific, Population-Wide Investigations of Habitual Contact Stress Exposure. Anderson, Donald D.; Iyer, Krishna S.; Segal, Neil A.; Lynch, John A.; Brown, Thomas D. // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;May2010, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p215 

    There exist no large-series human data linking contact stress exposure to an articular joint's propensity for developing osteoarthritis because contact stress analysis for large numbers of subjects remains impractical. The speed and simplicity of discrete element analysis (DEA) for estimating...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics