Laser-plasma debris from a rotating cryogenic–solid-Xe target

Amano, Sho; Inaoka, Yutaka; Hiraishi, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu
February 2010
Review of Scientific Instruments;Feb2010, Vol. 81 Issue 2, p023104
Academic Journal
We investigate the characteristics of laser plasma debris that is responsible for damaging optics. The debris is composed of fast ions, neutral particles, and fragments, and originates from a solid Xe target on a rotating drum that we developed as an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The ice fragments appear to be a problem most notably with solid Xe targets; however, we find that the damage induced by Xe ice fragments can be avoided by simply reducing the laser pulse energy. We find the number of fast neutral particles to be an order of magnitude less than the number of ions, and we clarify that the plasma debris is primarily composed of fast ions. In addition, we find that the number of fast ions having a few dozen keV of energy decreases when using the rotating target compared with the rest target. We attribute this to a gas curtain effect from the Xe gas localized at the rotating target surface. We estimate the sputtering rate of the Mo/Si mirror, which is caused primarily by the fast ions, to be 104 nm/1×106 shots at 190 mm from the source plasma and at an 11.25° angle from the incident laser beam. Up to the 1×106 shots exposure, remarkable degradation of the mirror reflectivity is not observed though the sputtering damages the mirror. Mitigation of the ions by using gas and/or magnetic fields will further improve the mirror lifetime. By comparing with a liquid jet Xe target, we conclude that the sputtering rate per conversion efficiency when using the solid Xe targets on the rotating drum is the same as that when using the liquid Xe targets. The high conversion efficiency of 0.9% in the rotating drum solid Xe target makes this technique useful for developing laser plasma EUV sources.


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