TITLE

Investigation of a community outbreak of typhoid fever associated with drinking water

AUTHOR(S)
Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Kazmi, Shahana U.
PUB. DATE
January 2009
SOURCE
BMC Public Health;2009, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p476
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Background: This report is about the investigation of an outbreak of typhoid fever claimed three human lives and left more than 300 people suffered within one week. The aim of this report is to draw the attention of global health community towards the areas that are still far from basic human essentialities. Methods: A total of 250 suspected cases of typhoid fever were interviewed, out of which 100 were selected for sample collection on the basis of criteria included temperature > 38°C since the onset of outbreak, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, vomiting and weakness. Food and water samples were also collected and analyzed microbiologically. Results: Inhabitants of village lived in poor and unhygienic conditions with no proper water supply or sewage disposal facilities and other basic necessities of life. They consumed water from a nearby well which was the only available source of drinking water. Epidemiological evidences revealed the gross contamination of well with dead and decaying animal bodies, their fecal material and garbage. Microbiological analysis of household and well water samples revealed the presence of heavy bacterial load with an average total aerobic count 106-109 CFU/ml. A number of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Bacillus species, Staphylococcus species, Enterobacter species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. Lab investigations confirmed the presence of multidrug resistant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in 100% well water, 65% household water samples and 2% food items. 22% of clinical stool samples were tested positive with Salmonella enterica serover Typhi Conclusions: This study indicated the possible involvement of well water in outbreaks. In order to avoid such outbreaks in future, we contacted the local health authorities and urged them to immediately make arrangements for safe drinking water supply.
ACCESSION #
48253259

 

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