The Effects of Education on Formula and Bottle-Feeding Behaviors of Nursing Mothers Based on PRECEDE Model

Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad-Hossein; Nadrian, Haidar; Rahaei, Zohreh
December 2009
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics;Dec2009, Vol. 19 Issue 4, p359
Academic Journal
Objective: Although a lot of interventional studies may be found which have investigated the effects of education on nursing mothers regarding advantages of breast-feeding behavior, but very few studies in developing countries have examined whether mothers are conscious of the risks associated with formula and bottle-feeding on children. Knowing that Breast-feeding Index has decreased in Iran and feeding behaviors are not suitable and adequate in nursing mothers, we studied the effect of education based on PRECEDE Model on improving mothers' breast-feeding behaviors in Yazd, Iran. Methods: Cluster stage sampling was employed to recruit 60 pregnant mothers who had one month to the time of their delivery. Before and 3 months after implementing the educational program through group discussion, lectures and pamphlets , a self-prepared questionnaire was completed by the respondents. Validity and reliability of the scales were approved. SPSS software was used for the purpose of data entry, manipulation, and analysis. Findings: Mean age was 25.9 (±5.8) years; 96.6% were housewives. After implementing the educational program, mothers' knowledge (38%) and attitude (12.3%) were significantly increased (P=0.001). After implementing the program, 85% of the mothers fed their children exclusively with mother's milk and 15%, breast-fed together with formula. The children, who were formula-fed, were breast-fed 4-5 times daily as well. Moreover, none of them was formula-fed from the time of birth and formula-feeding was used as a result of improper weight getting in these children. Conclusion: In order to design effective educational programs, healthcare professionals should better understand the determinants of feeding behaviors in nursing mothers and develop stage-specific interventions, within which, promoting predisposing factors like knowledge and attitude are priorities of the program. The PRECEDE Model, as a basic model for programming, was found to be helpful in addressing the effects of education on formula and bottle-feeding behaviors and their predisposing factors in nursing mothers.


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