Experimental study and modeling of damage of Al alloys using tensor theory

Zapara, Maxim A.; Tutyshkin, Nikolay D.; M�ller, Wolfgang H.; Wille, Ralf
February 2010
Continuum Mechanics & Thermodynamics;Ferb2010, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p99
Academic Journal
This article presents and evaluates experiments for the characterization and modeling of damage of structural aluminum and aluminum�magnesium alloys. Tensile tests were performed for specimens with artificial defects (voids) represented by different arrangements of pre-drilled micro-holes. The corresponding stress�strain curves were experimentally obtained. Plastic dilatation and deviatoric strain were determined both for the local zones with artificial defects and directly for meso-elements (i.e., material cells with artificial defects). A symmetric second-rank order tensor of damage was applied for a quantitative estimate of the material damage connected with the volume fraction and shape of micro-defects. The definition of this tensor is physically motivated, since its hydrostatic and deviatoric parts describe the evolution of damage connected with a change in volume fraction and shape of micro-defects, respectively. Such a representation of damage kinetics allows us to use two integral measures for the calculation of damage in deformed materials. The first measure determines damage related to an increase in void volume fraction (i.e., plastic dilatation). A critical amount of plastic dilatation corresponds to the moment of macro-fracture of the deformed metal. By means of experimental analysis, we can determine the function of plastic dilatation which depends on the strain accumulated by material particles under various stress and temperature-rate conditions of forming. The second measure accounts for the deviatoric strain of meso-elements, and is related to the change in their shapes. The critical deformation of ellipsoidal voids corresponds to the onset of their coalescence and to the formation of large cavernous defects. The second measure is considered as a criterion of micro-destruction due to formation of cavities in the deformed material. Based on the experimental data, some numerical modeling is realized for the investigated Al alloys to taken a change in stress triaxiality into account. It shows that a change in triaxiality toward smaller values results in an appreciable decrease of damage induced by strain. Both damage measures are important for the prediction of the meso-structure quality of metalware produced by metal forming techniques.


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