Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine (Rotarix) against Severe Diarrhea Caused by Serotypically Unrelated G2P[4] Strains in Brazil

Correia, Jailson B.; Patel, Manish M.; Nakagomi, Osamu; Montenegro, Fernanda M. U.; Germano, Eliane M.; Correia, Nancy B.; Cuevas, Luis E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Nakagomi, Toyoko
February 2010
Journal of Infectious Diseases;2/1/2010, Vol. 201 Issue 3, p363
Academic Journal
Background. In a Latin American trial, a monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine showed high efficacy against severe rotavirus diarrhea. Protection was lower against serotypically unrelated G2P[4] strains, which circulated infrequently. This case-control study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of this monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine against G2P[4] strains in Brazil. Methods. Case patients were children with severe G2P[4] rotavirus diarrhea who presented at a hospital in Recife, Brazil, from March 2006 through September 2008. Vaccination rates among case patients were compared with rates among 2 groups of control participants—children with rotavirus-negative diarrhea and children admitted for acute respiratory tract infection (ARI)—to calculate vaccine effectiveness, after controlling for the birth month and year. Results. We enrolled 70 G2P[4] rotavirus-positive case patients with severe diarrhea, 484 rotavirus-negative control participants with diarrhea, and 416 control participants with ARI, aged ⩾6 months. Among children aged 6-11 months, the effectiveness of the vaccine against G2P[4] diarrhea was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42%-91%) and 77% (95% CI, 43%-90%) among the rotavirus-negative control participants with diarrhea and control participants with ARI, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness in children aged ⩾ 12 months decreased to -24% (95% CI, -190% to 47%) and 15% (95% CI, -101 to 64) among the rotavirus-negative control groups with diarrhea and ARI, respectively. Conclusions. This monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine was effective against severe G2P[4] rotavirus diarrhea among children aged 6-11 months. Effectiveness declined among children aged ⩾12 months, which suggests waning immunity.


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