Ultrahigh vacuum/high-pressure flow reactor for surface x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering studies close to conditions for industrial catalysis

van Rijn, R.; Ackermann, M. D.; Balmes, O.; Dufrane, T.; Geluk, A.; Gonzalez, H.; Isern, H.; de Kuyper, E.; Petit, L.; Sole, V. A.; Wermeille, D.; Felici, R.; Frenken, J. W. M.
January 2010
Review of Scientific Instruments;Jan2010, Vol. 81 Issue 1, p014101
Academic Journal
A versatile instrument for the in situ study of catalyst surfaces by surface x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering in a 13 ml flow reactor combined with reaction product analysis by mass spectrometry has been developed. The instrument bridges the so-called “pressure gap” and “materials gap” at the same time, within one experimental setup. It allows for the preparation and study of catalytically active single crystal surfaces and is also equipped with an evaporator for the deposition of thin, pure metal films, necessary for the formation of small metal particles on oxide supports. Reactions can be studied in flow mode and batch mode in a pressure range of 100–1200 mbar and temperatures up to 950 K. The setup provides a unique combination of sample preparation, characterization, and in situ experiments where the structure and reactivity of both single crystals and supported nanoparticles can be simultaneously determined.


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