TITLE

Effectiveness of anti-tuberculosis treatment among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy at Vihiga District Hospital in 2007

AUTHOR(S)
Kwange, S. O.; Budambula, N. L. M.
PUB. DATE
January 2010
SOURCE
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology;Jan2010, Vol. 28 Issue 1, p21
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Purpose: In Kenya there is need for proper co-ordination of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculosis (TB) treatment as most (60%) of the TB patients are also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive. This study aims to determine the difference in response to TB treatment among HIV-negative TB patients and HIV-positive TB patients receiving delayed highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at Vihiga District Hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 patients were diagnosed using direct smears from sputum prepared and stained using the Ziehl-Neelsen procedure. The patients were offered HIV testing and counselling, and then categorized into category A (PTB with HIV n = 50) and category B (PTB without HIV co-infection n = 66). They were put on the same TB chemotherapy of a short course comprising of: Two months of Rifampicin-R, Isoniazid-H, Pyrazinamide-Z and plain Ethambutal-E, followed by six months of Ethambutal and Isoniazid. The main outcome measured was the sputum conversion rate from positive sputum to negative sputum. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the null hypothesis. Results: Fifty patients (43%) were found to be HIV positive and were put on HAART. The other 66 patients (57%) were HIV negative. The sputum conversion rate for HIV positive TB patients after two months and five months was 88 and 94%, respectively. The sputum conversion rate for HIV negative TB patients at two months and after five months was 92 and 97%, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the bacteriological outcome responses to TB chemotherapy between the two groups. Conclusion: The high sputum conversion rates in the two groups indicated good control and management of TB. Findings in this study indicated that delayed use of HAART during TB treatment leads to better outcome in TB treatment. The study recommends more concerted efforts to provide TB treatment to HIV positive TB patients in Kenya.
ACCESSION #
47675392

 

Related Articles

  • Ziehl-Neelsen method.  // Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (2009);2009, Issue 21, p2514 

    A definition of the term "Ziehl-Neelsen method" which refers to a method for staining Mycobacterium tuberculosis is presented.

  • Comparative efficacies of three acid-fast staining techniques under field conditions for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Indian context. Purusothaman, K. G.; Bhattacharjee, Kaushik; Joshi, Santa R.; Vasanthakumari, R. // Internet Journal of Microbiology;Jan2011, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p1 

    Tuberculosis is a most important human disease in its global prevalence. It is caused by tubercle bacilli. Among the various methods for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, bacteriological methods are more important. Standard Ziehl-Neelsen method of staining is most reliable for this. But due...

  • WHICH IS YOUR DIAGNOSIS? Zanetti, Gláucia; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Hochhegger, Bruno; Jr., Arthur Soares Souza; Marchiori, Edson // Radiologia Brasileira;Nov/Dec2013, Vol. 46 Issue 6, pix 

    The article focuses on the nodular reversed halo sign's (RHS) diagnosis caused by pulmonary tuberculosis, and mentions preventive measures. Topics related to diagnosis discussed include acid-fast bacilli found in the patient's sputum with active pulmonary tuberculosis, use of computed tomography...

  • Tuberculous Encephalopathy without Meningitis: Pathology and Brain MRI Findings. Hee-Jin Kim; Kyu-Won Shim; Moon-Kyu Lee; Moo-Suk Park; Se-Hoon Kim; Eung-Yeop Kim; Soochul Park; Tai-Seung Kim // European Neurology;2011, Vol. 65 Issue 3, p156 

    Tuberculous encephalopathy (TBE) is an established disease entity of diffuse cerebral damage occurring with tuberculosis and an underlying immune pathogenesis. However, the presence of this disease entity remains controversial. We report a 15-year-old boy with seizures and a progressive decline...

  • Later Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Certain TB Patients May Be Beneficial. Friswell, Andrea C. // Pulmonary Reviews;Dec2011, Vol. 16 Issue 12, p8 

    The article discusses a study which reveals that patients with both tuberculosis (TB) and HIV and have a CD4+ T-cell count of 50 per cubic mm or higher may benefit from initiation from antiretroviral therapy (ART) during the second phase of TB treatment compared with the initial intensive...

  • Vitamin D deficiency increases risk of TB among people starting HIV therapy. CARTER, MICHAEL // CME: Continuing Medical Education;Feb2013, Vol. 31 Issue 2, p67 

    The article discusses research being done on the association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), oral thrust and wasting among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected Tanzanian adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). It references a study...

  • Systemic Immune Activation and Microbial Translocation in Dual HIV/Tuberculosis-Infected Subjects. Toossi, Zahra; Funderburg, Nicholas T.; Sirdeshmuk, Sohani; Whalen, Christopher C.; Nanteza, Maria W.; Johnson, Denise F.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Hirsch, Christina S. // Journal of Infectious Diseases;Jun2013, Vol. 207 Issue 12, p1841 

    Background. Systemic immune activation is a strong predictor of progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease and a prominent feature of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Objective. To understand the role of systemic immune activation and microbial translocation in...

  • Prevalence of non HIV related co-morbidity in HIV patients on Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART): A retrospective study. Denue, Ballah Akawu; Gashau, Wadzani; Ekong, Ernest; Ngoshe, Rakiya Mohammed // Annals of Biological Research;2012, Vol. 3 Issue 7, p3333 

    Patterns of co-morbidity among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are not well described in our environment, the extent to which non-AIDS-defining conditions impact on HIV infection and its treatment need to be determined. Medical charts of 241 participants were reviewed to...

  • A Randomized Trial of Punctuated Antiretroviral Therapy in Ugandan HIV-Seropositive Adults With Pulmonary Tuberculosis and CD4+ T-Cell Counts of ≥350 cells/μL. Nanteza, M. W.; Mayanja-Kizza, H.; Charlebois, E.; Srikantiah, P.; Lin, R.; Mupere, E.; Mugyenyi, P.; Boom, W. H.; Mugerwa, R. D.; Havlir, D. V.; C. C. Whalen // Journal of Infectious Diseases;9/15/2011, Vol. 204 Issue 6, p884 

    Background. Optimal treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis in patients with high CD4+ T-cell counts is unknown. Suppression of viral replication during therapy for tuberculosis may block effects of immune activation on T cells and slow HIV disease progression....

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics