Lipreading, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults

Feld, Julia E.; Sommers, Mitchell S.
December 2009
Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research;Dec2009, Vol. 52 Issue 6, p1555
Academic Journal
Purpose: To examine several cognitive and perceptual abilities—including working memory (WM), information processing speed (PS), perceptual closure, and perceptual disembedding skill—as factors contributing to individual differences in lipreading performance and to examine how patterns in predictor variables change across age groups. Method: Forty-three younger adults (mean age = 20.8 years, SD = 2.4) and 38 older adults (mean age = 76.8 years, SD = 5.6) completed tasks measuring lipreading ability, verbal WM, spatial WM (SWM), PS, and perceptual abilities. Results: Younger adults demonstrated superior lipreading ability and perceptual skills compared with older adults. In addition, younger participants exhibited longer WM spans and faster PS than did the older participants. SWM and PS accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in lipreading ability in both younger and older adults, and the pattern of predictor variables remained consistent over age groups. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the large individual variability in lipreading ability can be explained, in part, by individual differences in SWM and PS. Furthermore, as both of these abilities are known to decline with age, the findings suggest that age-related impairments in either or both of these abilities may account for the poorer lipreading ability of older compared with younger adults.


Related Articles

  • What causes auditory distraction? William J Macken; Fiona G Phelps; Dylan M Jones // Psychonomic Bulletin & Review;Feb2009, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p139 

    The role of separating task-relevant from task-irrelevant aspects of the environment is typically assigned to the executive functioning of working memory. However, pervasive aspects of auditory distraction have been shown to be unrelated to working memory capacity in a range of studies of...

  • Perceptual specificity and implicit auditory priming in older and younger adults. Sommers, Mitchell S. // Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory & Cognition;Sep99, Vol. 25 Issue 5, p1236 

    Examines age differences in perceptual specificity for implicit auditory priming in older and younger adults. Experiments wherein the participants rated words based on perceptual or semantic attributes; Filtered versions of repeated and new words identified by the participants; Sensitiveness of...

  • Dynamic functional reorganizations and relationship with working memory performance in healthy aging. Sala-Llonch, Roser; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M.; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Bargalló, Nuria; Junqué, Carme; Bartrés-Faz, David // Frontiers in Human Neuroscience;Jun2012, Vol. 6, p1 

    In recent years, several theories have been proposed in attempts to identify the neural mechanisms underlying successful cognitive aging. Old subjects show increased neural activity during the performance of tasks, mainly in prefrontal areas, which is interpreted as a compensatory mechanism...

  • Interferencia stroop intermodal entre representaciones gustativas y auditivas. Razumiejczyk, Eugenia; Jáuregui, Matilde; Macbeth, Guillermo // Revista CES Psicologia;jul-dic2012, Vol. 5 Issue 2, p25 

    The cross-modal integration is a highly adaptive mechanism in which information patterns are combined in order to provide more accurate information about the external properties of the environment. However, subjects are not always capable of processing two sources simultaneously. The aim of this...

  • Age-Related Changes in Memorizing Sequences of Movements with the Dominant and Subdominant Hands. Lyakhovetskii, V.; Bobrova, E. // Neuroscience & Behavioral Physiology;Jan2015, Vol. 45 Issue 1, p74 

    The age-related characteristics of motor short-term memory on reproduction of a memorized sequence of six movements with the right or left hands were studied in two groups of subjects (right-handed, aged 18-25 and 35-60 years). The mean magnitudes of all movement errors were found to be...

  • MEMORY. Foster, Jonathan K. // New Scientist;12/3/2011, Vol. 212 Issue 2841, pi 

    The article presents an overview of different types of memory and the physiological and psychological processes that control them. Some aspects of memory explored include how information is processed and encoded, the brain's storage of short-term memory, and the phenomenon of imagined memories....

  • There is no convincing evidence that working memory training is effective: A reply to Au et al. (2014) and Karbach and Verhaeghen (2014). Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Hulme, Charles // Psychonomic Bulletin & Review;Feb2016, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p324 

    The possible cognitive benefits of working memory training programs have been the subject of intense interest and controversy. Recently two meta-analyses have claimed that working memory training can be effective in enhancing cognitive skills in adulthood (Au et al. Behavioural Brain Research...

  • REHEARSAL STRATEGIES DURING MOTOR-SEQUENCE LEARNING IN OLD AGE: EXECUTION VS MOTOR IMAGERY. Stoter, Arjan J. R.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Kamsma, Yvo P. T. // Perceptual & Motor Skills;Jun2008, Vol. 106 Issue 3, p967 

    Motor imagery and action-based rehearsal were compared during mo- tor sequence-learning by young adults (M=25 yr., SD=3) and aged adults (M=63 yr., SD=7). General accuracy of aged adults was lower than that of young adults (F1.28 = 7.37, p = .01) even though working-memory capacity was...

  • An analysis of age differences in perceptual speed. McCabe, Jennifer; Hartman, Marilyn // Memory & Cognition;Dec2008, Vol. 36 Issue 8, p1495 

    Tests of the generalized slowing hypothesis have demonstrated the strong predictive power of tests of perceptual comparison speed in accounting for age differences across a range of cognitive domains. The goals of this study were to determine whether short-term memory (STM) and perceptual...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics