Microscopic observations and inflammatory cytokine productions of human macrophage phagocytising submicron titanium particles

Taira, Masayuki; Kagiya, Tadayoshi; Harada, Hidemitsu; Sasaki, Minoru; Kimura, Shigenobu; Narushima, Takayuki; Nezu, Takashi; Araki, Yoshima
January 2010
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine;Jan2010, Vol. 21 Issue 1, p267
Academic Journal
This study was performed to microscopically observe and measure inflammatory cytokine production by human macrophages phagocytosing submicron titanium (Ti) particles. Observations with secondary electron microscopy (SEM), SEM/electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that macrophages [phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells] at 24 h in culture actively phagocytosed and accumulated submicron Ti particles in intracellular phagosomes, in which refinement of Ti particles occurred. The macrophages were also cultured for 24 h in four media with and without submicron Ti particles and lipopolysaccharide (LPS; components of bacteria). Whilst neither stimulus reduced cell viability, submicron Ti particles and LPS activation independently and synergistically caused the macrophages to produce three inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) at high levels in the culture supernatants. The inflammatory and osteolysis conditions caused by macrophages phagocytosing submicron Ti particles would be worsened by challenge with LPS in patients wearing Ti prostheses.


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