Relationships between Lightning Location and Polarimetric Radar Signatures in a Small Mesoscale Convective System

Lund, Nicole R.; MacGorman, Donald R.; Schuur, Terry J.; Biggerstaff, Michael I.; Rust, W. David
December 2009
Monthly Weather Review;Dec2009, Vol. 137 Issue 12, p4151
Academic Journal
On 19 June 2004, the Thunderstorm Electrification and Lightning Experiment observed electrical, microphysical, and kinematic properties of a small mesoscale convective system (MCS). The primary observing systems were the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array, the KOUN S-band polarimetric radar, two mobile C-band Doppler radars, and balloonborne electric field meters. During its mature phase, this MCS had a normal tripolar charge structure (lightning involved a midlevel negative charge between an upper and a lower positive charge), and flash rates fluctuated between 80 and 100 flashes per minute. Most lightning was initiated within one of two altitude ranges (3–6 or 7–10 km MSL) and within the 35-dBZ contours of convective cells embedded within the convective line. The properties of two such cells were investigated in detail, with the first lasting approximately 40 min and producing only 12 flashes and the second lasting over an hour and producing 105 flashes. In both, lightning was initiated in or near regions containing graupel. The upper lightning initiation region (7–10 km MSL) was near 35–47.5-dBZ contours, with graupel inferred below and ice crystals inferred above. The lower lightning initiation region (3–6 km MSL) was in the upper part of melting or freezing layers, often near differential reflectivity columns extending above the 0°C isotherm, which is suggestive of graupel formation. Both lightning initiation regions are consistent with what is expected from the noninductive graupel–ice thunderstorm electrification mechanism, though inductive processes may also have contributed to initiations in the lower region.


Related Articles

  • Observation of a polarization structure in the Ca( p, p')X reaction at 1 GeV. Miklukho, O.; Kisselev, A.; Amalsky, G.; Andreev, V.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Kozlenko, N.; Kravchenko, P.; Levchenko, M.; Novinskiy, D.; Prokofiev, A.; Shvedchikov, A.; Trush, S.; Zhdanov, A. // JETP Letters;Jul2015, Vol. 102 Issue 1, p11 

    The polarization of the secondary protons in the inelastic ( p, p') reaction on the Ca nucleus at the initial proton energy 1 GeV was measured in a wide range of the scattered proton momenta at a laboratory angle Θ = 21°. The final protons from the reaction have been detected using the...

  • Large differences in tropical aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere and Earth's surface. Satheesh, S.K.; Ramanathan, V. // Nature;5/4/2000, Vol. 405 Issue 6782, p60 

    Presents an observational method for quantifying aerosol forcing. Effect of radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols; Major source of uncertainty in climate predictions; Utilization of calibrated satellite radiation measurements.

  • Experimental comparison of a helium electron polarimeter with a calibrated high-precision Mott... Fischer, T.; Kessier, J. // Review of Scientific Instruments;Oct95, Vol. 66 Issue 10, p4885 

    Presents comparative electron polarization measurement with a helium electron polarimeter and a high precision Mott detector. Calibration of the helium electron polarimeter according to theory; Problems inherent in helium electron polarimetry.

  • Experimental and theoretical evaluation of temperature polarization phenomenon in direct contact membrane distillation. Ali, A.; Macedonio, F.; Drioli, E.; Aljlil, S.; Alharbi, O. A. // Chemical Engineering Research & Design: Transactions of the Inst;Oct2013, Vol. 91 Issue 10, p1996 

    Heat and mass transfer in direct contact membrane distillation (MD) has been analyzed by using a specifically designed cell. In particular, the cell has sixteen sensors located at specific locations within its body to measure the bulk and membrane surface temperatures on both feed and permeate...

  • Trends in Intra- and Inter-Annual Temperature Variabilities Across Sudan. Elagib, Nadir Ahmed // AMBIO - A Journal of the Human Environment;Jul2010, Vol. 39 Issue 5/6, p413 

    Four mean temperature variables, namely maximum (MAX), minimum (MIN), mean (MEAN) and diurnal temperature range (DTR), were considered for 14 selected observational stations throughout Sudan. The objectives were to investigate the seasonal and annual regimes, the seasonal and annual trends, the...

  • Representativeness of four precipitation observational networks of China. Ren, Yuyu; Ren, Guoyu // Acta Meteorologica Sinica;Aug2012, Vol. 26 Issue 4, p454 

    Four precipitation observational networks with varied station densities are maintained in China. They are: the Global Climate Observation System (GCOS) Surface Network (GSN), the national Reference Climate Network (RCN), the national Basic Meteorological Network (BMN), and the national Ordinary...

  • A Real-Time Weather-Adaptive 3DVAR Analysis System for Severe Weather Detections and Warnings. Gao, Jidong; Smith, Travis M.; Stensrud, David J.; Fu, Chenghao; Calhoun, Kristin; Manross, Kevin L.; Brogden, Jeffrey; Lakshmanan, Valliappa; Wang, Yunheng; Thomas, Kevin W.; Brewster, Keith; Xue, Ming // Weather & Forecasting;Jun2013, Vol. 28 Issue 3, p727 

    A real-time, weather-adaptive three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) system has been adapted for the NOAA Warn-on-Forecast (WoF) project to incorporate all available radar observations within a moveable analysis domain. The key features of the system include 1) incorporating...

  • Trends in Summer Rainfall over China Associated with the Tibetan Plateau Sensible Heat Source during 1980-2008. Duan, Anmin; Wang, Meirong; Lei, Yonghui; Cui, Yangfan // Journal of Climate;Jan2013, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p261 

    The impacts of the thermal forcing over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in spring on changes in summer rainfall in China are investigated using historical records from the period between 1980 and 2008. The spring sensible heat (SH) flux and snow depth over the TP both decreased over this time period,...

  • A study of impact of the geographic dependence of observing system on parameter estimation with an intermediate coupled model. Wu, Xinrong; Zhang, Shaoqing; Liu, Zhengyu; Rosati, Anthony; Delworth, Thomas // Climate Dynamics;Apr2013, Vol. 40 Issue 7/8, p1789 

    Observational information has a strong geographic dependence that may directly influence the quality of parameter estimation in a coupled climate system. Using an intermediate atmosphere-ocean-land coupled model, the impact of geographic dependent observing system on parameter estimation is...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics