Photoemission electron microscopy using extreme ultraviolet attosecond pulse trains

Mikkelsen, A.; Schwenke, J.; Fordell, T.; Luo, G.; Klünder, K.; Hilner, E.; Anttu, N.; Zakharov, A. A.; Lundgren, E.; Mauritsson, J.; Andersen, J. N.; Xu, H. Q.; L'Huillier, A.
December 2009
Review of Scientific Instruments;Dec2009, Vol. 80 Issue 12, p123703
Academic Journal
We report the first experiments carried out on a new imaging setup, which combines the high spatial resolution of a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) with the temporal resolution of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse trains. The very short pulses were provided by high-harmonic generation and used to illuminate lithographic structures and Au nanoparticles, which, in turn, were imaged with a PEEM resolving features below 300 nm. We argue that the spatial resolution is limited by the lack of electron energy filtering in this particular demonstration experiment. Problems with extensive space charge effects, which can occur due to the low probe pulse repetition rate and extremely short duration, are solved by reducing peak intensity while maintaining a sufficient average intensity to allow imaging. Finally, a powerful femtosecond infrared (IR) beam was combined with the XUV beam in a pump-probe setup where delays could be varied from subfemtoseconds to picoseconds. The IR pump beam could induce multiphoton electron emission in resonant features on the surface. The interaction between the electrons emitted by the pump and probe pulses could be observed.


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