Why nitrogen cannot lead to p-type conductivity in ZnO

Lyons, J. L.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G.
December 2009
Applied Physics Letters;12/21/2009, Vol. 95 Issue 25, p252105
Academic Journal
Based on electronic structure and atomic size considerations, nitrogen has been regarded as the most suitable impurity for p-type doping in ZnO. However, numerous experimental efforts by many different groups have not resulted in stable and reproducible p-type material, casting doubt on the efficacy of nitrogen as a shallow acceptor. Based on advanced first-principles calculations we find that nitrogen is actually a deep acceptor, with an exceedingly high ionization energy of 1.3 eV, and hence cannot lead to hole conductivity in ZnO. In light of this result, we reexamine prior experiments on nitrogen doping of ZnO.


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