Real-time x-ray microbeam characterization of electromigration effects in Al(Cu) wires

Wang, P.-C.; Noyan, I. C.; Kaldor, S. K.; Jordan-Sweet, J. L.; Liniger, E. G.; Hu, C.-K.
April 2001
Applied Physics Letters;4/30/2001, Vol. 78 Issue 18, p2712
Academic Journal
We report real-time, in situ x-ray microbeam measurements of electromigration-induced Cu redistribution, and the concurrent local stress variation in Al(Cu) wires. The data, which were obtained by combining x-ray microtopography with energy-dispersive fluorescence analysis, encompass both the early and late stages of electromigration as well as the postrelaxation stage at high temperature with the current turned off. We observe that both Cu concentration and stress values show unexpected local variations that may reflect the effect of local configuration such as film-substrate interface integrity or microstructure. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.


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