In situ x-ray microscopic observation of the electromigration in passivated Cu interconnects

Schneider, G.; Hambach, D.; Niemann, B.; Kaulich, B.; Susini, J.; Hoffmann, N.; Hasse, W.
March 2001
Applied Physics Letters;3/26/2001, Vol. 78 Issue 13, p1936
Academic Journal
X-ray imaging of electromigration in a passivated Cu interconnect was performed with 100-nm spatial resolution. A time sequence of 200 images, recorded with the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility x-ray microscope in 2.2 h at 4 keV photon energy, visualizes the mass flow of Cu at current densities up to 2x10[sup 7] A/cm[sup 2]. Due to the high penetration power through matter and the element specific image contrast, x-ray microscopy is a unique tool for time-resolved, quantitative mass transport measurements in interconnects. Model calculations predict that failures in operating microprocessors are detectable with 30 nm resolution by nanotomography. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.


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