Ionic and electronic dark decay of holograms in LiNbO[sub 3]:Fe crystals

Yang, Yunping; Nee, Ingo; Buse, Karsten; Psaltis, Demetri
June 2001
Applied Physics Letters;6/25/2001, Vol. 78 Issue 26, p4076
Academic Journal
The lifetimes of nonfixed holograms in LiNbO[sub 3]:Fe crystals with doping levels of 0.05, 0.138, and 0.25 wt % Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] have been measured in the temperature range from 30 to 180 °C. The time constants of the dark decay of holograms stored in crystals with doping levels of 0.05 and 0.25 wt % Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] obey an Arrhenius-type dependence on absolute temperature T, but yield two activation energies: 1.0 and 0.28 eV, respectively. For these crystals, two different dark decay mechanisms are prevailing, one of which is identified as proton compensation and the other is due to electron tunneling between sites of Fe[sup 2+] and Fe[sup 3+]. The dark decay of holograms stored in crystals with the doping level of 0.138 wt % Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] is the result of a combination of both effects. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.


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