Surface electronic structure of plasma-treated indium tin oxides

Yu, H. Y.; Feng, X. D.; Grozea, D.; Lu, Z. H.; Sodhi, R. N. S.; Hor, A-M.; Aziz, H.
April 2001
Applied Physics Letters;4/23/2001, Vol. 78 Issue 17, p2595
Academic Journal
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the electronic structures of indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces treated by O[sup +], Ar[sup +], and NH[sub x][SUP ARRANGE="STAGGER"]+] plasmas. The XPS data show that there is a significant change in core level energies (In 3d[sub 5/2] O 1s, and Sn 3d[sub 5/2]), in donor concentration (Sn[sup 4+]), in valence band maximums (VBM), and in work functions on ITO surfaces being treated by O[sup +] and NH[sub x][SUP ARRANGE="STAGGER"]+] plasmas, compared with that of virgin and Ar[sup +] plasma treated surfaces. Based on these experimental data, a surface band-bending theory is proposed. The theory explains that when Fermi energy of the plasma-treated surface is shifted towards the middle of the band gap: core levels will shift their energies to lower binding energies, VBM will bend upward, and work function will increase, as observed. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.


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