The Arabidopsis PARAQUAT RESISTANT2 gene encodes an S-nitrosoglutathione reductase that is a key regulator of cell death

Ruiqiang Chen; Shulan Sun; Chun Wang; Yansha Li; Yan Liang; Fengying An; Chao Li; Haili Dong; Xiaohui Yang; Jian Zhang; Jianru Zuo
December 2009
Cell Research;Dec2009, Vol. 19 Issue 12, p1377
Academic Journal
Metabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a major biologically active nitric oxide (NO) species, is catalyzed by the evolutionally conserved GSNO reductase (GSNOR). Previous studies showed that the Arabidopsis GSNOR1/HOT5 gene regulates salicylic acid signaling and thermotolerance by modulating the intracellular S-nitrosothiol level. Here, we report the characterization of the Arabidopsis paraquat resistant2-1 (par2-1) mutant that shows an anti-cell death phenotype. The production of superoxide in par2-1 is comparable to that of wild-type plants when treated by paraquat (1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride), suggesting that PAR2 acts downstream of superoxide to regulate cell death. PAR2, identified by positional cloning, is shown to be identical to GSNOR1/HOT5. The par2-1 mutant carries a missense mutation in a highly conserved glycine, which renders the mutant protein unstable. Compared to wild type, par2-1 mutant has a higher NO level, as revealed by staining with 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate. Consistent with this result, wild-type plants treated with an NO donor display resistance to paraquat. Interestingly, the GSNOR1/HOT5/PAR2 protein level, other than its steady-state mRNA level, is induced by paraquat, but is reduced by NO donors. Taken together, these results suggest that GSNOR1/HOT5/PAR2 plays an important role in regulating cell death in plant cells through modulating intracellular NO level.


Related Articles

  • Uncoupling Salicylic Acid-Dependent Cell Death and Defense-Related Responses From Disease.... Greenberg, Jean T.; Silverman, F. Paul // Genetics;Sep2000, Vol. 156 Issue 1, p341 

    Examines the role of salicylic acid (SA) in regulating cell death and defense-related response using the accelerated cell death 5 genetic mutant in Arabidopsis. Lack of disease-resistant trait in the mutant; Role of the nonexpressor of PR1 in controlling cell death; Effect of the hormone...

  • Differential ozone sensitivity among Arabidopsis accessions and its relevance to ethylene synthesis. Tamaoki, Masanori; Matsuyama, Takashi; Kanna, Machi; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Kubo, Akihiro; Aono, Mitsuko; Saji, Hikaru // Planta;Feb2003, Vol. 216 Issue 4, p552 

    We compared the physiological and molecular responses of two Arabidopsis accessions, Col-0 and Ws-2, to ozone (O3) exposure. Observation of visible injury as well as ion-leakage analysis demonstrated clear differences between the O3-tolerant accession Col and the O3-sensitive accession Ws....

  • A putative lipid transfer protein involved in systemic resistance signalling in Arabidopsis. Maldonado, Ana M.; Doerner, Peter; Dixon, Richard A.; Lamb, Chris J.; Cameron, Robin K. // Nature;9/26/2002, Vol. 419 Issue 6905, p399 

    Localized attack by a necrotizing pathogen induces systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to subsequent attack by a broad range of normally virulent pathogens. Salicylic acid accumulation is required for activation of local defenses, such as pathogenesis-related protein accumulation, at the initial...

  • Origin, expression and possible functions of the two alternatively spliced forms of the mouse Nedd2 mRNA. Kumar, Sharad; Kinoshita, Makoto; Dorstyn, Loretta; Noda, Makoto // Cell Death & Differentiation;Jul97, Vol. 4 Issue 5, p378 

    The Nedd2 gene, a member of the ICE/ced-3 family, transcribes two mRNA species by differential splicing. One of these encodes a shorter truncated version of the protein termed Nedd2s/ICH-1s. While Nedd2/ICH-1 induces apoptosis, ICH-1s was proposed to be a negative regulator of cell death. In...

  • SA and ROS are involved in methyl salicylate-induced programmed cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana. Li Juan Yun; Wen Li Chen // Plant Cell Reports;Jul2011, Vol. 30 Issue 7, p1231 

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically encoded, active process that results in the death of individual cells, tissues, or whole organs, which plays an important role in the life cycles of plants and animals. Previous studies show that methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a defense signal molecular...

  • Genetic Dissection of Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defense Signaling Networks in Arabidopsis. Ng, Gina; Seabolt, Savanna; Zhang, Chong; Salimian, Sasan; Watkins, Timley A.; Lu, Hua // Genetics;Nov2011, Vol. 189 Issue 3, p851 

    Properly coordinated defense signaling networks are critical for the fitness of plants. One hub of the defense networks is centered on salicylic acid (SA), which plays a key role in activating disease resistance in plants. However, while a number of genes are known to affect SA-mediated defense,...

  • Both Light-Induced SA Accumulation and ETI Mediators Contribute to the Cell Death Regulated by BAK1 and BKK1. Yang Gao; Yujun Wu; Junbo Du; Yanyan Zhan; Doudou Sun; Jianxin Zhao; Shasha Zhang; Jia Li; Kai He // Frontiers in Plant Science;4/25/2017, Vol. 8, p1 

    Receptor-like kinases BAK1 and BKK1 modulate multiple cellular processes including brassinosteroid signaling and PRR-mediated PTI in Arabidopsis. Our previous reports also demonstrated that bak1 bkk1 double mutants exhibit a spontaneous cell death phenotype under normal growth condition. With an...

  • Possible Role of MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING 3 and B-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN 19 in Flowering Time Regulation of Arabidopsis Mutants with Defects in Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay. Nasim, Zeeshan; Fahim, Muhammad; Ji Hoon Ahn // Frontiers in Plant Science;2/14/2017, Vol. 8, p1 

    Eukaryotic cells use nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) to clear aberrant mRNAs from the cell, thus preventing the accumulation of truncated proteins. In Arabidopsis, two UP-Frameshift (UPF) proteins, UPF1 and UPF3, play a critical role in NMD. Although deficiency of UPF1 and UPF3 leads to...

  • The Protein Phosphatase 7 Regulates Phytochrome Signaling in Arabidopsis. Genoud, Thierry; Cruz, Marcela Treviño Santa; Kulisic, Tea; Sparla, Francesca; Fankhauser, Christian; Métraux, Jean-Pierre // PLoS ONE;2008, Vol. 3 Issue 7, p1 

    The psi2 mutant of Arabidopsis displays amplification of the responses controlled by the red/far red light photoreceptors phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) but no apparent defect in blue light perception. We found that loss-offunction alleles of the protein phosphatase 7 (AtPP7) are...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics